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BIO202 - Ch 16 - Endocrine System - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ

Most endocrine glands secrete their hormones by __ into the __. Exocytosis, extracellular space
Most endocrine glands are __. Compact multicellular organs
Scattered hormone-producing cells w/in digestive tract mucosa & brain are known as __. Diffuse endocrine system
Exocrine glands have __ ducts that __. Epithelial walled, transport secretions to the epithelial surface
All exocrine glands secrete their products __. onto body surfaces (skin) or onto body cavities
Give 6 examples of exocrine glands. Mucus, sweat, oil, saliva, liver (bile), & pancreas (digestive enzymes)
The synthesis & release of most hormones are regulated by __. some type of negative feedback system
3 major types of endocrine gland stimulation __. humoral, hormonal, & neural
What happens when insul molecules attach to protein receptors? Glucose molecules begin to tenter cells & cellular activity increases
What are the 2 great control systems of the body? (1) nervous system & (2) endocrine system
How does the endocrine sys. influence metabolic activity? through hormones
What are the "mighty molecules"? hormones
Hormones control what major processes? Reproduction; growth & development; mobilization of body defenses; maintenance of electrolyte, water, & nutrient balance of blood, reg. of cellular metabolism
Study of hormones & endocrine organs is __. endocrinology
Exocrine glands produce what? nonhormonal substances (sweat & saliva) & have ducts
Endocrine glands produce what? Hormones & lack ducts
Endocrine glands have a rich __ drainage that receives their hormones. vascular & lymphatic
Most hormone-producing cells in endocrine glands are arranged how? In cords & branching networks - maximizes contact w/capillaries
Name the 9 major endocrine glands. From top to bottom: hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, & gonads (ovary/testes)
The hypothalamus is considered a __ organ. neuroendocrine organ - because it also has neural functions
Because leptin is released by __ cells, they are considered endocrine tissue too. adipose
Hormone-producing cells are also found where? Walls of sm. intestine, stomach, kidneys, & heart.
What are autocrines? Chemicals that exert their effects on the cells that secrete them - prostaglandins released by sm. muscle cells.
What are paracrines? Somatostatin - Chemicals that act both locally & affect cell types other than these releasing them.
Somatostatin released by pancreatic cells inhibit? The release of insulin by other pancreatic cells.
How do some cancer/tumor cells cause hormone-mediated pathology? By synthesizing hormones identical to normal ones & in an uncontrolled fashion.
Hormones regulate what? The metabolic function of body cells.
2 chemical classification of hormones. Amino acid-based or steroids
Most hormones are __ based. amino acids
Amines & thyroxine are what kind of hormones? Amino acid-based hormones - derrived from simple amino acid derrivatives
Peptide & protein hormones are? Amino acid-based - short chains & long polymers
Steroids are synthesized from __. Cholesterol
Gonadal & adrenocortical hormones are __. Steroids
What are eicosanoids? Active lipids released by cell membranes - leukotrienes & prostaglandins - made from arachidonic acid - localized.
Leukotrienes are? Signaling chemicals & mediate inflammation & some allergic reactions.
Prostaglandins have __ targets & effects. Multiple
Prostaglandins & leukotrienes are __. Eicosanoids
Hormones __ cell activity. alter
Name some changes stimulated by hormones. Alters membrane permeability (ion channels), stimulates enzyme synthesis, activate/deactivate enzymes, induces secretory activity, & stimulates mitosis
All amino acid-based hormones (except thyroid) are __. water-soluble hormones - act on receptors in plasma membrane
Water-soluble hormones couple via __. G proteins to 2nd messengers
Steroids & thyroid hormones are __. lipid-soluble hormones
Lipid-soluble hormones act on __. Intracellular receptors, directly activating genes
Receptors for water-soluble hormones are where? In plasma membrane because they cannot enter cell
Receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are where? inside cell because they can enter cell
Steroid hormones (and thyroid) diffuses through __. Plasma membrane of target cell
Steroid hormones bind to receptor that is bound to a region of __. DNA specific for it
Thyroid hormone receptors are always __. bound to DNA even in absense of thyroid hormone.
What "turns" on a gene? When steroid hormone binds to receptor on DNA & prompts transcription of DNA.
Nearly all body cells have __ receptors which is the principal hormone stimulating cellular metabolism. thyroxine
__ are molecular triggers rather than information molecules. hormones - just by binding to receptors
3 factors on which target cell activation depends. (1) blood levels of the hormone, (2) # of receptors, (3) affinity (strength) of bond
What is "up-regulation" regarding hormones? When target cells form more receptors in response to increase in blood levels of specific hormone
What is "down-regulation" regarding hormones? Loss of receptors due to high hormone blood concentrations to prevent cell from overreacting.
Lipid-soluble hormones (steroids & thyroid hormone) travel in bloodstream attached to __. plasma proteins
Most hormones are removed from body by which organs? Kidneys & liver
Which type of hormones have shortest half-life? Water-soluble
3 types of hormone interaction. permissiveness, synergism, & antagonism
Permissiveness hormone interactions are? When 1 hormone cannot exert its effects w/o another hormone present - ie. reproductive system needing thyroid
Synergism of hormone interaction is? Where more than 1 hormone produces same effects & amplifies effects - ie. glucagon (pancreas) + epinephrine both cause liver to release glucose = 150% higher together than alone.
Antagonism of hormone interaction is? When 1 hormone opposes action of another - ie. insulin lowers blood glucose & is antagonized by glucagon which acts to raise it.
Blood levels of many hormones vary __. only w/in a narrow range.
What is humoral stimuli? Simplest of endocrine control system - when some endocrine glands secrete hormones in redirect response to change in blood levels of certain ions or nutrients.
Give example of humoral stimuli. Parathyroid glands secrete PTH when they sense decline in blood Ca2+ levels - also insulin & aldosterone
What is neural stimuli regarding hormone secretion? When nerve fibers stimulate hormone release - ie. sympathetic NS stimulation of adrenal medulla to release catecholamines during stress.
What is hormonal stimuli regarding hormone secretion? When glands release hormones in response to hormones produced by other organs - ie. release of most anterior pituitary hormones regulated by inhibiting hormones produced by hypothalamus.
Which feedback loop lies at core of endocrinology? hypothalmic-pituitary-target loop
Name the "turn on" factors of hormone release. hormonal, humoral, & neural stimuli
What makes adjustments to endocrine system? The nervous system
What are "C - Cells"? Parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland.
The atria of heart contain cardiac muscle cells that secrete __. ANP - atrial natriuretic peptide
ANP reduces what? Blood volume, BP, & sodium concentration.
What are enteroendocrine cells? Hormone-secreting cells in the mucosa of GI tract.
Name a female hormone specific to the placenta. hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin.
Erythropoietin - a hormone from kidney cells - does what? Signals bone marrow to increase RBC production.
Skin releases what kind of steroid hormone? Cholecalciferol - vitamin D3 - that is modified in liver & activated in kidney & changed to calcitrol.
Adipose cells release __ following uptake of glucose. leptin
The hormone, resistin, secreted by adipose cells does what? Antagonizes insulin.
Hormone-producing gland arrive from __ germ layers. all 3 embryonic - mesoderm ones produce steroid hormones
What change in anterior pituitary occurs with age? Amount of connective tissue increases & number of hormone cells declines.
With age, glucose tolerance begins to __. deteriorate - levels rise & return more slowly - declining receptor sensitivity to insulin
Basal metabolic rate __ with age. declines - increase in body fat
How are parathyroid glands changed by age? Very little - PTH levels remain fairly normal.
Without insulin, body cells would be unable to get or use __ and would die. glucose
The surge of __ produces first by the adrenal cortices, and then by the maturing gonads, produces aggressiveness & galloping sex drive. androgens
The hypothalamus is an __ that regulates the bulk of hormonal activity via its hormonal or neural controls of the __ & __. endocrine organ - pituitary & adrenal medulla
The placenta is a temporary __. endocrine gland - produces estrogens & progesterone to maintain pregnancy & prepare breasts for lactation
hypophysectomy Surgical removal of pituitary gland.
prolactinoma Most common type of pituitary gland tumor; evidenced by hypersecretion of prolactin & menstral disturbances in women.
phychosocial dwarfism Dwarfism (and failure to thrive) resulting from stress & emotional disorders that suppress hypthalamic release of GHRH & anterior pituitary secretion of GH.
thyroid storm (thyroid crisis) A sudden & dangerous increase in symptoms of hyperthyroidism due to excessive TH - hypermetabolic state, fever, rapid BP & HR - caused by stress, TH supplements, & trauma.
Created by: Ladystorm



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