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Anatomy of Spine + Bone, Cartilage, Tendons and Ligaments

What is the definition of strain? Measurement of deformation having six components
The internal resistance of a material to deformation by externally applied loads is? Stress
The resistance of a device to deformation is? Stiffness
Deformation of a material as a result of an applied load is? Strain
The stress produced when a force acts in line (parallel) with a surface? Shear
Least amount of energy to failure can be determined by...? Calculating the area under the Stress/Strain curve
What is the endurance limit? The amximum stress under which the material will not fail in a fatigue (cyclic loading) test.
Relative toughness can be determined by..? Seeing which stress/strain curve has the largest area under it.
Best description of the mechanical properties of wet compact bone in humans? Strain-rate dependent
Vicoelastic bones vary with... Load rate
Increasing the strain rate from slow to fast will... Increase energy absorption to failure
Bone is weakest in resisting shear force
What is kyphosis? Over-curvature of Thoracic and Sacral sections of spine
What is Lordosis? Over-curvature of Cervical and Lumbar sections of spine.
What is the liquid part of the discs called? Nucleus Pulposus
What is the outer non-liquid part of the disc called? Annulus Fibrosus
What are the two "processes" on the spine? Transverse (expand out like arms) Spinous (expands out towards the back and covers the discs
Difference between Upper and Lower Cervical Lower has a larger body and a spinous process
Difference between Cervical and Thoracic Thoracic has much larger body and more facet joints, a longer spinrous process, circular vertabral hole space.
Difference betwween Thoracic and Lumbar Lumbar has wider body, smaller transverse processes, and a rounder, shorter spinous process. Facet joints also have a different orientation
What are spinal meninges? Specialized membranes that provide protection, physical stability, and shock absorption for the spinal cord. Layers-->Outside to inside-->Dura, arachnoid, pia (all maters)
Spinal nerves Have 2 roots for outgoing and incoming signals 31 pairs of nerves total 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccygeal
Make-up of spinal nerves Myelinated axon-->endoneurium (cover)-->fascicle (multiple axons)-->perineurium (cover)-->blood vessels between fascicles-->epineurium (covers multiple fascicles and blood vessels)
Dermatomes area of skin that is correlated with a certain spinal nerve (31 in total btw). Clinically important to diagnose which spinal nerve/segment is damaged based on where the patient has lost sensation.
Dorsal Root vs Ventral Root Dorsal root protects incoming sensory nerves Ventral root protects outgoing motor nerves
Reflex Arc Stimulus travels up sensory neuron, through excitatory interneuron in the grey matter, and then motor neuron is stimulated and sends signal down ventral root towards effector muscle
White vs. Grey Spinal matter Grey matter is in the middle of spinal cord and contains cell bodies of neurons and glial cells White matter surrounds the grey matter and conveys sensory/motor information via tracts.
Facet joints in Cervical segments Allow for back/forward bending, twisting, and lateral bending
Thoracic facet joints More twisting and bending, less bending back
Lumbar facet joints Even less twisting/bending, and bending backwards
4 Components of Bone Cortical and Trabecular (structural) Bone Marrow (structural and RBC) Vessels (nutritional and innervation)
Cortical bone Contain osteon (tubes for information/nutriets/cells to pass through) periosteum (fibrous tissue) lamellae (layers of mineralized bone) osteoclasts and osteoblasts
Trabecular bone Cancellousor spongy, light, pores filled with marrow structure (plate or rod) oriented in direction of loads
Purpose of vertebral bodies Protect spinal cord & neural tissues Transfer load b/w upper & lower body Allow motion of the head
Vertebral Structure Cortical shell with trabecular struts
Lack of stress in the bone slows the formation of... osteoblasts, making the bone less density with immobilzation
Bone marrow structural purpose Hydraulic resistance and strengthening. Increases the compressive strength and energy capacity
What is Wolff's Law? Bone is laid down where needed and resorbed where not needed
What is a material's yield stress? The amount of stress at which a predetermined amount of permanent deformation occurs
The higher the elastic modulus of a material the... more stiff the material.
Ligaments vs. Tendons Ligaments are bone2bone attachments, nearly parallel bundles of collagen Tendons are bone2muscle attachments and produce motion, parallel collagen
Purpose of ligaments Carry tensile loads, provide tensile resistance, stabilize joints, restrict extreme movements of spine segments
Ligamentum Flavum Super elastic ligaments from lamina to lamina that help restrict flexion, lateral bending, and rotation.
spinal ligament that can handle the largest load Transverse ligament
What is bone marrow? A liquid that consists of stroma, myeloid tissue, fat, and lymphatic tissue.
What is hyalin cartilage smoothish cartilage (articular cartilage and cartilaginous endplate)
What is elastic cartilage? more flexible than hyaline
What is fibrocartilage? Found in fibrous tissues (Annulus Fibrosus, meniscus)
Purpose of cartilage in spine? Transmits load from one bone segment to another Allows bones to move with respect to one another (by reducing friction)
What is the major type of collagen in articular (between joints) cartilage? Type 2
What happens when cartilage undergoes stress relaxation? It initially undergoes displacement but then reaches the maximum displacement after the load peaks. Once it doesn't displace anymore, the fluid redistributes evenly inside the cartilage.
Is cartilage strain rate dependent? Yes
Facets are what type of joints? Synovial--filled with clear, viscous fluid to help provide low friction and nutrition.
Degeneration in the disc leads to greater loads in the facts....which leads to facet degeneration
What is elastic cartilage? More flexible than hyaline (Epiglottis, external ear)
Purpose of IVD Load transmission between vertebral bodies absorption and distribution of load allows motion while restrictive excessive motion
Purpose of cartilaginous endplate? Allows for fluid movement (nutritional flow) between disc and vertebral body
Nucleus Pulposus Type 2 collage, proteoglycan, ECM, water, avascular
Disc cells do what? Fibroblasts inside produce fibers, Cells synthesize cellular matrix and release lactic acid
What does aggrecan do inside IVD? Produces swelling pressure from high negative charge density Provides stiffness, compressive resistance, and viscoelasticity
What does collagen inside IVD do? Provides form and tensile strength and stiffness
Disc degeneration characterized by: Loss of hydration, disc narrowing, osteophyte formation, endplate sclerosis, and facet joint narrowing.
Where does degeneration most often occur? Mid-cervical and lower lumbar levels (also at thoraco-lumbar junction)
Creep is greater before or after deformation? After, the equilibrium state is reached much faster (less compressive resistance/stiffness in material)
Created by: digitaleyes



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