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Vocab Chapters 11-13

Marco Polo Marco Polo was an Italian trader who traveled to China and later wrote about his trip. During his time in China he served as a government official in Kublai Khan's court.
interest Interest is a fee that borrowers pay for the use of someone else's money.
Cosimo de Medici Cosimo de Medici was an Italian banker and leader of Florence who wanted to make Florence the world's greatest city. He helped bring about the Renaissance with his actions.
Renaissnce The Renaissance, meaning rebirth," is a period of rebirth and creativity the followed the Europe's Middle Ages.
humanism Humanism is the study of history, literature, public speaking, and art (also known as the humanities) that led to a new way of thinking in Europe in the late 1300s.
Dante Alighieri Dante was an Italian Renaissance poet who wrote The Divine Comedy in the Italian language. He showed that Italian is as great as Latin.
Niccolo Machiavelli Machiavelli was an Italian writer and politician who wrote The Prince in which he advised leaders on how to rule.
perspective Perspective is a method of showing a three-dimensional scene on a flat surface so that it looks real.
Michelangelo Michelangelo was an Italian Renaissance artist who designed buildings, wrote poetry, and created sculptures and paintings.
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo was a genius of the Renaissance and also a painter, sculptor, inventor, engineer, town planner, and mapmaker.
Petrarch Petrarch was an early Italian Renaissance scholar who wrote about the importance of knowing history.
Johann Gutenberg Johann Gutenburg was a German printer. He developed a printing press that used movable type.
Christian humanism Christian humanism is the combination of humanist and religious ideas.
Desiderius Erasmus Desiderius Erasmus was a Dutch priest who published In Praise of Folly in which he criticized corrupt clergy. His criticisms helped inspired the Protestant Reformation.
Albrecht Durer Albrecht Durer was a German Renaissance artist. He is famous for his prints and woodcuts.
Miguel de Cervantes Miguel de Cervantes was a Spanish writer. He wrote Don Quixote.
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was a very famous English Renaissance writer and playwright. He is considered by many to be the greatest English writer of all time.
classical Something classical refers to the cultures of ancient Greece or Rome.
affect To affect means to change or influence.
Reformation Reformation is a reform movement against the Roman Catholic Church that began in 1517; it resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
indulgence An indulgence is a document given by the pope that excused a person from penalties for sins he or she have committed.
purgatory In Catholic teaching, purgatory is a place where souls go to before they go to heaven.
Martin Luther Martin Luther was a German priest credited with starting the Reformation. He nailed a list of complaints about the Catholic Church to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
Protestants Protestants are Christians who protested against the Catholic Church.
John Calvin John Calvin was a Christian reformer. He taught about predestination, living good lives, and obeying God's laws.
King Henry VIII Henry VIII was King of England. He split with the Catholic Church and declared himself head of the Church of England, or Anglican Church.
Catholic Reformation Catholic Reformation was the effort of the late 1500s and 1600s to reform the Catholic Church from within; also called the Counter Reformation.
Ignatius of Loyola Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish noble and a saint. he founded the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits.
Jesuits Jesuits are members of a Catholic religious order created to serve the pope and the church.
Francis Xavier Francis Xavier was a Jesuit priest and missionary. He introduced Catholicism to parts of India and Japan.
Huguenots Huguenot was a French Protestant.
Edict of Nantes Edict of Nantes was a decree issued in 1598 by King Henry IV that granted religious freedom in most of France.
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars from 1618 to 1648 that involved many of the countries of Europe.
congregation A congregation was an assembly of people who belong to a church.
federalism Federalism is the sharing of power between local governments and a strong central government.
method A method is a way of doing something.
agreement An agreement is a decision reached by two or more people or groups.
Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution is a series of events that led to the birth of modern science; it lasted from about 1540 to 1700.
science Science is a particular way of gaining knowledge about the world.
theories Theories are explanations that a scientist develops based on facts.
Ptolemy Ptolemy was an Ancient Greek astronomer and geographer who studied the skies and made maps of the Mediterrnean region.
rationalists Rationalists are people who look at the world in a reasonable and logical way.
alchemy Alchemy is a forerunner of chemistry.
Nicolaus Copernicus Micolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who wrote the book On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres. His book helped begin the Scientific Revolution.
Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer of the Scientific Revolution who emphasized the importance of careful observation.
Johannes Kepler Johanns Kepler was a German astronomer who proved that the planets orbit the sun.
Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was an Italian scientist. He was the first scientist to routinely use experiments to test theories. He was place on trial for supporting theories that contradicted Church teachings.
Sir Isaac Newton Isaac Newton was an English scientist who studied and simplified the work of earlier scientists. He identified four laws that explained how the physical world works.
barometer A barometer is a scientific instrument that measures air pressure.
Francis Bacon Francis Bacon was an English philosopher. He argued that science could be pursued in a systematic, logical fashion. His ideas helped develop the scientific method.
Rene Descartes Rene Descartes was a French philosopher who believed that nothing should be accepted as true if it had not been proven. His ideas helped develop the scientific method.
scienctific method The scientific method is a step-by-step method for performing experiments and other scientific research.
hypothesis A hypothesis is a solution that a scientist proposes to solve a problem.
logical Something logical is reasoned or well thought out.
procedure A procedure is a series of steps taken to accomplish a task.
principles Principles are basic beliefs, rules, or laws.
Created by: 603678JaredAlba