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APII Urinary


Functions of Urinary System is Storage and ____of urine, Regulation of blood volume, Regulation of ____production, Regulation of ion balance/___-___ balance Excretion, erythrocyte, acid-base
Urinary bladder is expandable and stores as much as ___of urine. 1L
Excretion of urine is through the _____. urethra
The urinary system directly regulates blood volume, under direction of certain____; it controls blood and____ ____. hormones, interstitial fluid
The urinary system regulates ____production by measuring O2 in the blood in order to secrete erythropoietin if necessary. erythrocyte
The urinary system helps control the inorganic ion balance and acid/base balance by altering ____ion and ammonium secretion. hydrogen
The urinary system is comprised of the following structures: _____, _____, ____ _____, _____ kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Kidneys are located retroperitoneal on the ____abdominal wall posterior
Kidneys weigh ___gr and measure 12 x 6.5 x 2.5 cm 100
The superior pole of the left kidney is at the level of____, whereas the superior pole of the right kidney is about 2 cm lower to accommodate the large size of the ____ T12, liver
The kidneys have a concave medial border called the____, where vessels, nerves, and the ureter connect with the kidney hilum
The kidney hilum is continuous with an internal space called the ____ sinus renal
Kidney’s tissue layers (from superficial to deepest):____ fat, Renal fascia, Perinephric fat, ____capsule Paranephric, Fibrous
Fibrous capsule layer: In direct contact with ____surface of kidney and protects it from trauma and prevents____. outer, infections
Perinephric fat kidney layer: Provides ____ and _____to the kidney. cushioning and insulation
Renal fascia kidney layer: Anchors kidney to ____ ____wall posterior abdominal
Paranephric fat kidney layer: ____layer surrounding the kidney between renal fascia and peritoneum Outermost
Regions of the Kidney are divided into an ____renal cortex and an ____renal medulla outer, inner
Extensions of the renal____, called renal columns, project into the renal medulla and subdivide the medulla into renal____. cortex, pyramids
A typical kidney contains ___renal pyramids 8–15
The wide base of the renal pyramid makes contact with the cortex in a region called the ____ junction. corticomedullary
The apex (tip) of the renal pyramid is called the renal____ . papilla
Each renal papilla projects into a hollow funnel-shaped structure called the minor ____ (8-10) calyx
Several minor calyces fuse to form a ___calyx (2-3). major
The major calyces fuse to form the renal___, which collects the total urine output from one kidney and transports it into the____. pelvis, ureter
8 to 15 renal lobes that consist of a medullary pyramid and some ____substance. cortical
20 – 25% of cardiac ____enters kidneys by the renal arteries. output
Renal artery arises from ____ ____aorta between 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebra. descending abdominal
Within the renal sinus, the renal arteries branch into ____arteries. segmental
Segmental arteries branch into ____arteries still inside the renal sinus. interlobar
Interlobar arteries branch into ____arteries in the corticomedullary junction. arcuate
Arcuate arteries branch into ____arteries that project to the cortex. interlobular
As interlobular arteries enter the kidney cortex, they extend small branches called ____arterioles. afferent
The afferent arterioles enter a structure called the renal corpuscle and form a tuft of capillaries called the _____. glomerulus
Some ____is filtered out of the capillaries into the capsular space within the renal corpuscle. plasma
The remaining blood exits the glomerulus and the renal corpuscle as the ____arteriole. efferent
Efferent arterioles branch into one of two capillary networks: ___ ___and Peritubular capillaries Vasa recta
Peritubular capillaries surround the convoluted tubules and reside primarily in the ____ cortex
Vasa recta is associated mainly with the ____loop and primarily reside in the medulla nephron
The peritubular capillaries and vasa recta drain into a network of ____. veins
The smallest veins are the ____veins then merge to form arcuate veins. interlobular
Arcuate veins merge to form the ____veins. interlobar
Interlobar veins merge in the ___ ____to form the renal vein in each kidney. renal sinus
Blood remains oxygenated till it reaches the ____capillaries and vasa recta. peritubular
The nephron is the functional ____unit of the kidney. filtration
There are approximately 1.25 million ____ in each kidney. nephrons
The nephrons form urine through three interrelated processes:____, Tubular secretion, and Tubular ____ Filtration, reabsorption
Filtration is water and dissolved solutes enter the renal capsule by ____differences. pressure
Tubular reabsorption is as substances move across the wall of the renal ____. tubules
Tubular secretion is active transport of ____into the tubular fluid. solutes
Two Types of Nephrons: ____nephrons, Juxtamedullary nephrons Cortical
Cortical nephrons: ___of all nephrons; the bulk of the nephron structures reside in the kidney ____ 85%, cortex
____nephrons: 15% of all nephrons; their renal corpuscle lies near the corticomedullary junction and their long nephron loops extend deep into the medulla. Juxtamedullary
The nephron has the following components: Renal____, Proximal convoluted tubule, Nephron___, Distal convoluted tubule corpuscle, loop
Renal Corpuscle is composed of two structures: glomerulus and glomerular____ capsule
The renal corpuscle glomerulus is a thick tangle of fenestrated _____ capillaries
The renal corpuscle glomerular capsule is an ____covering over the glomerulus epithelial
Corpuscle has a ____pole, where the afferent arteriole enters and the efferent arteriole exits vascular
Corpuscle also has a tubular pole, where the ____ _____ tubule exits proximal convoluted
____Capsule is comprised of two layers: Parietal layer, Visceral layer Glomerular
____layer of the glomerular capsule directly overlies and comes in contact with the glomerulus; comprised of specialized cells called ____ Visceral, podocytes
Parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is formed from a ____ ____epithelium simple squamous
Capsular space between the two layers of the glomerular capsule, filled with ____ ____from the glomerulus. filtered products
Podocytes have long processes called ____that wrap around the glomerular capillaries but do not completely ensheathe it. pedicels
The pedicels are separated from each other by thin spaces called ____ ____. filtration slits
The filtration ____and the fenestrated ___ ____makes up the filtration membrane, which mostly leaks indiscriminate contents from the plasma into the capsule. slits, capillary wall
It is the roles of the remainder of the ____to adjust the contents of the urine. nephron
Proximal Convoluted Tubule begins at tubular pole of ____ ____ renal corpuscle
____ ____Tubule has walls comprised of simple cuboidal epithelium with tall microvilli that increases its reabsorption capacity. Proximal Convoluted
Reabsorbed nutrients and water enter the ____ capillaries and are returned to the general circulation in the vascular system. peritubular
___ ____ (loop of Henle) originates at the PCT and projects into the medulla. Nephron loop
Each nephron loop has two limbs: ____limb, ___ limb Descending, Ascending
_____limb extends from the cortex into the medulla is made of simple cuboidal epithelium and then simple squamous epith. Descending
____limb returns from medulla into cortex is lined with simple squamous epith. and then simple cuboidal epith. Ascending
Na and Cl ions are mostly reabsorbed in the _____ limb of the nephron loop. Ascending
Both limbs of the nephron loop facilitate reabsorption of ____ and ____. water and solutes
Distal Convoluted Tubule is found in renal ____. cortex
Distal Convoluted Tubule contacts with the afferent arteriole wall at the ____ ____ vascular pole
Distal ____Tubule is lined with simple cuboidal epith., with no microvilli and fewer mitochondria. Convoluted
____ ____ _____Secretes K+ and H+ from peritubular capillaries into tubular fluid. Also reabsorption of H2O under the influence of ADH and aldosterone. Distal Convoluted Tubule
____is secreted by the post pituitary in response to low blood volume or low solute concentration in tubular fluid in the kidney. ADH
____is secreted by the adrenal cortex and responds to the same stimuli as ADH. Aldosterone
Aldosterone and ADH cause the DCT to increase ___and ___absorption from tubular fluid. H20, Na
Tubular Fluid Becomes ____ urine
Tubular fluid  Collecting tubules  Collecting ____. ducts
Collecting ___are the last structures able to modify content of tubular fluid, under the influence of ADH and aldosterone. ducts
Dehydrated individual: Water ____ occurs. More concentrated urine. conservation
Once tubular fluid leaves the collecting duct, it becomes ____. urine
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is important in regulation of ____ ____. blood pressure
juxtaglomerular apparatus is comprised of juxtaglomerular ____ and ____ densa. cells, macula
Juxtaglomerular cells: Modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole located at the ____ ____of the renal corpuscle vascular pole
Macula densa: Group of modified epithelial cells in the ____ ____ ____that come in contact with the juxtaglomerular cells distal convoluted tubule
Name the structures (2) work together to regulate BP, monitoring ion concentration in tubular fluid. Macula densa, Juxtaglomerular cells
Blood volume or solute concentration reduced  Macula densa senses this in the ___ ___ Stimulation of juxtaglomerular cells  Production of ____ Activation of RAAS  ___ production tubular fluid, renin, Aldosterone
Kidney’s are innervated by a mass of sensory and autonomic fibers collectively called the renal ____ plexus
The renal plexus enters the kidney at the ____ hilum
Symp. Innervation of the kidneys vessel ____and decreased glomerular flow and filtrate formation. constriction
____Innervation of the kidneys: CN X. No known effect. Parasymp.
Pain from kidneys is usually referred to dermatomes T__- T__ T10–T12
Urinary Tract is composed of the following components: Ureters, ___ ___ , Urethra Urinary bladder
Ureters are ____tubes that conduct urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. fibromuscular
Average length of the ureters are __cm in length and retroperitoneal. fibromuscular
Ureters originate at the ___ ___as it exits the ___of the kidney then enter the posterolateral wall of the base of the ___ ___ renal pelvis, hilum, urinary bladder……yeah I made this one hard
Wall of ureter has three layers: Mucosa, Muscularis, _______ Adventitia
Mucosa layer of the ureter is _____ epith. And both distensible and impermeable. transitional
Muscularis layer of the ureter has an inner ____ layer and outer ____ layer. longitudinal, circular
The presence of urine in the ureters produces____ ___. peristaltic waves
Adventitia layer of the ureters: Some extensions of its connective tissue anchor them to the ___ ____ Wall. posterior abdomen
Ureters project through the posteroinferior bladder wall____ . obliquely
The ureters are compressed as the bladder distends decreasing the likelihood of urine ____ reflux
Each ureter segment receives blood from a segment of the nearest ____ artery
Symp. Innervation of the ureters: T11-L2. Pain is referred to these dermatomes “___ ___ ___”. loin to groin
Urinary Bladder is an expandable, muscular container. Main function is ____for urine reservoir
Urinary Bladder is located immediately posterior to ____ ____ pubic symphysis
In females, the urinary bladder lies anteroinferior to the ____ and directly anterior to the vagina uterus
In males, the urinary bladder lies anterior to the ___ and superior to the prostate gland rectum
The posteroinferior triangular area of the urinary bladder is called the ____. trigone
The ____ is defined by the two ureteral opening and the urethral opening, it does not move. trigone
The trigone of the bladder comes from a different _____ source than the bladder itself. embryologic
Four tunics form the wall of the urinary bladder: Mucosa, ____, Muscularis, Adventitia Submucosa
Mucosa layer of the bladder is ____epi. that lines the internal surface, ____allow for distension of bladder and highly vascularized lamina propria. transitional, rugae
Submucosa layer of the bladder ¬¬¬¬¬¬____urinary bladder wall supports
Muscularis layer of the bladder has three layers of smooth muscle called ¬¬¬____muscle detrusor
In the bladder an internal urethral sphincter muscle is present at the urethral ¬¬¬_____ opening
Adventitia layer of the bladder has an outer layer of ¬¬¬_____connective tissue areolar
Blood supply to the bladder is from the internal ____artery and veins. Iliac
_____is the expulsion of urine from the bladder. Miscturition
Miscturition is initiated by the micturition ____. reflex
Parasym axons: micturition reflex center from segm S2-S4. They____ the intrenal urethral sphincter and stimulate the¬¬¬____ of the detrusor muscle. relax, contraction
Symp axons: From T11-L2 and cause contraction of the urethral ____and inhibit contraction of detrusor muscle. sphincter
Micturition step 1: Bladder fills with urine, ____receptors activated and signal micturition reflex center. stretch
Micturition step 2: Impulses in ____division travel to the sphincter and detrusor muscle. parasymp
Micturition step 3: Smooth muscle of sphincter relaxes and ____ ____contracts. detrusor muscle
Micturition step 4: Person’s conscious decision to urinate causes ____of external urethral sphincter. relaxation
Micturition step 5: Urine is expeled by contraction of ____ _____and muscles from the abd wall. detrusor muscle
The ____is a fibromuscular tube that originates at the neck of the urinary bladder and conducts urine to the exterior of the body. urethra
The urethra has a ____lining that is a protective mucous membrane with mucin cells and urethral glands. luminal
Two sphincters control the release of urine from the urinary bladder in to the urethra: ____ and ____ urethral sphincter internal, external
Female Urethra has the single function of transporting urine to the exterior of the body, ____cm long. 3 to 5
Male Urethra Has two functions because it serves to transport both ____ and ____. urine and semen
The male urethra ends as an opening called the external urethral ____ orifice
Male Urethra is partitioned into three segments:____, Membranous, and ____urethra Prostatic, Spongy
Prostatic urethra is 3-4 cm, most ____portion, and internal longitudinal muscle and external circular muscle. dilatable
Membranous urethra is the shortest and least dilatable portion, and is surrounded by ¬¬¬¬____muscle fibers that form the external urethral sphincter. striated
____urethra is 15 cm, encased by the corpus spongiuosum which is the erectile tissue of the penis and extends to the external urethral orifice Spongy
Created by: BrandiLynn



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