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TEAS Review

Percent decrease ((original value - new value)/original value) x 100
Percent increase ((new value - original value)/original value ) x 100
Dorsal Body Cavity Contains the cranial cavity and spinal column
Ventral body Cavity Contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen; diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the thoracic cavity (superior to the diaphragm); below the diaphragm are the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
Anatomical position A standard position in which the body is facing forward, the feet are parallel to each other, and the arms are at the side with the PALMS facing FORWARD.
Prefixes Metric Kilo 1000 = 10^3
Hecto 100 = 10^2
Deka 10 = 10^1
deci 0.1 = 1/10 = 10^-1
centi 0.01 = 1/100 = 10^-2
milli 0.001 = 1/1000 = 10^-3
Respiratory System Primary function of the LUNGS is: Breathing in oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide.
1. Air is inhaled through the nose into the TRACHEA, passes into the right and left BRONCHIAL TUBES.
2. Within the bronchial tubes are tiny hairs called CILIA, keep the airway clear by removing unwanted matter from the lungs.
3. After leaving the bronchial tubes, air travels into the ALVEOLI, which are tiny air sacs that are surrounded by capillaries.
4. The alveoli permit the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to occur.
5. The oxygen is then transported by red blood cells into the bloodstream.
6. This process begins when the DIAPHRAGM, an abdominal muscle that contracts, pulls air into the lungs during INSPIRATION (the act of taking in oxygenated air.)
7. When the diaphragm relaxes, carbon dioxide is forced out of the body through EXPIRATION.
CNS --Brain and spinal cord are of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
-peripheral nervous system (PNS). --Cranial and spinal nerves (extend beyond CNS) make up PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
--AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Controls automatic body functions -heartbeat -digestion
Divisions of ANS SYMPATHETIC NERVES (active when a person is excited or scared) and PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES (which are active when a person is eating or a rest).-These two types of nerves have opposite effects on the body-Helps to maintain a balanced internal environment
SENSORY-SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Consists of: 12 pairs of cranial nerves; 31 pairs of spinal nerves -controls voluntary actions-talking and walking
GANGLIA collection of nerve cell bodies within the nervous system
DENDRITES receive stimuli from the internal and external environment and bring those stimuli to the neurons
NEURONS specialized cells that make up the nervous system and transmit messages for interpretation.
Axon connects one neuron with another neuron over a fluid filled gap called a SYNAPSE
Synapse Chemical neurotransmitters pass through the synapse to transmit an impulse to another neuron. (transmission happens @ 90 meters per second).
Nervous System Functions 1. To provide sensory functions 2. To provide motor functions 3. To provide integrative functions-All of these functions work together with other body systems to react to STIMULI and maintain homeostatis within the body.
Sensory functions -feeling pain -feeling heat -other stimuli The face, fingers and toes are more sensitive to stimuli because they have a greater number of SENSORY NEURONS than do other parts of the body.
REFLEX -When the body senses pain, it may automatically withdraw from it.
Reflex Action occurs when neurons transmit a message to the spinal cord --sends a message back to the muscles to react before the message is transmitted to the brain.
Motor functions Motor function serves to carry electrical impulses from the CNS to the EFFECTORS
Effectors -most commonly the glands and muscles.
Integrative Function Integrative function uses sensory info to make decision by joining together sensory input with memories already stored within the brain, also uses sensory info to develop thoughts and feelings upon which decisions may be based at a later time.
Digestive system Digestive system is composed of the alimentary canal and accessory structures.-Includes:--mouth--esophagus--stomach--small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)--Large intestine (colon)--anus
Mechanical churning of the stomach also continues to break the food down into smaller pieces.
Accessory structures -teeth -salivary glands -pancreas -liver -gallbladder
The gastrointestinal tract (stomach and intestines) -long, muscular tube lined with smooth muscle.
PERISTALSIS Rhythmic contraction that propel food towards the colon and anus.---These contractions move food along the gastrointestinal tract as the food is mechanically and chemically broken down.
Digestion (The mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods)
In mouth -teeth grind-chew-tear food into smaller pieces
enzymes Chemicals that break down proteins, carbs and fats into nutrients that can be absorbed through the wall of the intestine into the bloodstream.
Salivary amylase Begins carbohydrate breakdown in the mouth.
Enzymes in stomach An enzyme to begin protein digestion (protease), hydrochloric acid, and intrinsic factor, which increases the stomach's absorption of vitamin B12.
Digestion 2 Fat-laden CHYME (the mixture of food, chemicals, and enzymes in the stomach) remains in the stomach longer than carbohydrate-laden chyme, which advances more quickly into the small-intestine (duodenum) through the PYLORIC SPHINCTER.
pyloric sphincter releases chyme from the stomach into the small intestine.
duodenum The first section of the small intestine releases two hormones: -secretin -cholecystokinin (CCK)
secretin travels to the pancreas to trigger release of bicarbonate, which neutralizes the stomach acid entering the duodenum. In addition, secretin triggers the release of pancreatic enzymes that further aid chemical digestion in the small intestine.
cholecystokinin (CCK) -initiates bile release from the gallbladder, while decreasing mtility and acid production by the stomach.
Additional enzymes needed to complete the digestion of fats, proteins and carbohydrates are released.
Majority of absorption occurs where? in the small intestine through finger-like projections called VILLI.
Villi and MICROViLLi Increase the surface area within the small intestine, increasing the area from which absorption can take place.
Parts of villi -Each villus contains arterioles and lymphatic vessels through which absorption occurs.
When not absorbed... -The remaining products of digestion that are not absorbed are transported to the colon.
Large Intestines -Absorption of water, which affects water and electrolyte balance, occurs in the colon, and the storage and formation of feces also occurs.
Immune System tissues, cells and organs that fight off illness and disease.
Immune System is composed of both innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) defenses that are designed to protect the body from PATHOGENS and other foreign invaders.
Innate immune functions provide a nonspecific type of defense.-These defense mechanisms occur the same way every time, regardless of the type of number of pathogens that are present.
Innate defenses--first line of defense -skin-mucous membranes-digestive enzymes (which includes both physical and chemical barriers)
Innate defenses - second line nonspecific defenses: -fever-inflammation-phagocytosis (engulging of pathogens by white blood cells)-natural killer cells-interferons-chemotaxis-release of cytokines
Four cardinal signs of inflammation (innate defenses) -Redness-heat-swelling-pain
Natural Killer cells NK cells (innate defenses) -produce PERFORINS (pore-forming proteins) that target cancer and virus cells.--Perforins cause these cells to LYSE (rupture)
Interferons (innate defenses) Body's response to a viral infection and prevent replication of the virus after 7 to 10 days.- They also activate macrophages and NK cells.
Chemotaxis (innate defenses) the method by which the LEUKOCYTES (white blood cells) respond to damaged body tissues
Chemotaxis: Cytokenes -this is accomplished in part through CYTOKINES (chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissues).
DIAPEDESIS (the process of white blood cells squeeing through capillary slits in response to cytokines) occurs, followed by cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) guiding the white blood cells to the site of damage or infection.
Adaptive responses Known as the third line of defense, or specific defenses. -humoral (antibody-mediated) -cell-mediated responses
humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity Antibodies are produced that are specific for the invading ANTIGEN.-The antigen binds to B cells (types of lymphocytes or small leukocytes) followed by binding with T-helper cells.--This activates the B cells to produce antibodies.
active immunity individual receives a vaccine that simulates an actual infection by a pathogen, stimulating the body to produce antibodies for future protection.
Passive immunity Individual does not produce his or her own antibodies, receives them directly from another source, such as mother to infant through breast milk.
Cell-mediated immunity T cells are primarily responsible for recognizing nonself cells. -T cell is a lymphocyte that triggers the action of other lymphocytes.
Process of Cell-mediated immunity -macrophages capture the nonself cell -T-helper cell binds to it and secretes a cytokine that signals the cytotoxic T cell-Cytotoxic T cell responds through chemotaxis and actively destroys the nonself cell.
Fertility rate average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years -occur between the ages of 15 and 44
Replacement rates number of births needed to maintain the population at its current number.
crude birth rate number of births per 1,000 people per year
crude death rate number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.
Immigration moving into a region or country
emigration moving out of one region or country
Biological classification system Eight levels of Taxonomy: Domain - donkey Order - often Kingdom - Kings & Family - find Phylum - princes Genus - great Class - Can Species - spouses
Each taxon becomes less specific. The least inclusive listing is the species and the most inclusive is the kingdom
Six Kingdoms A - Amber F - feels P - positively P - perky
Natural selection (survival of the fittest) some individuals of a species are better able to survive in their environment and reproduce than others.
Genes Responsible for heredity. -Stretches of DNA on a chromosome that provide information for an organism's characteristics.
Alleles a different form of a gene. -some alleles contain one or more MUTATIONS (changes in the DNA that affect the way a gene functions.)
Adaptation Mutations and combinations of alleles that make it easier for the organism to withstand the environmental pressures.
Mutations Permanent changes in DNA sequences.
nucleic acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Nucleic acids job is to store and transmit hereditary information.-Structurally, a nucleic acid is a chain of NUCLEOTIDES than consists of a pentose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Pentose (Nucleic acids) A type of sugar
Phosphate group (Nucleic acids) a molecule in the backbone of DNA and RNA that links adjoining bases together.
nitrogenous base (Nucleic acids) a molecule found in DNA and RNA that encodes the genetic information in cells.
Five types of nitrogenous bases: --adenine--cytosine--guanine--thymine (Unique to DNA)--uracil (Unique to RNA)
Purines Adenine and guanine have two rings
Pyrimidines Thymine and cytosine have one ring
(Nucleic acids) bonding DNA is most often seen in structure known as the double helix.
hydrogen bond -Forms weak bonds between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen or nitrogen atoms between bases in the complementary strands of DNA.
DNA: Nitrogenous pairing A pairs T G pairs C
RNA: Nitrogenous pairing A pairs U G pairs C
DNA & RNA pentose components (Nucleic acids) DNA: deoxyribose RNA: ribose
Transcription DNA is the genetic blue print-RNA is the messenger within the cell.--messages stored in the bases of DNA must be transfered to the ribosomes to make proteins.--Cells copy instructions in the DNA to RNA and send the messenger RNA to the ribosomes.
Translation The process of protein production from messenger RNA.-Proteins are made by ribosomes from the information and sent out to the entire cell.
Prokaryotic Cells -the most basic types of cells that can exist independently of other cells. Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
cell wall -helps separate the inside/outside of cell
organelles --tiny organs; serve a unique function within cell
nucleoid --condensed DNA of cell; contains genes/genetic blue prints for information of proteins that makeup machinery of cell.
cytoplasm -inner layer rich in protein fluid with gel consistency
-plasmids --small, circular portions of DNA not associated with the nucleoid.---In microbiology and genetics, a plasmid is a DNA molecule that is separate from, and can replicate independently of, the chromosomal DNA.; chemically similar to DNA.
-ribosome --manufacture proteins for the cell from the RNA messages.
Very small bodies that are free-floating within the cytoplasm; proteins do most of the work in the cells.
Flagella- (some) long and whip like and project outward from cell.
-Pili --allow communication and transfer of information between two cells. --Allow for cellular reproduction
Eukarya (eukaryotic cell) More complex and larger than prokaryotic cells-some eukaryotic cells live as single cells--many exist as part of a larger complex of cells comprising a multicellular organism.
-Plasma membrane envelop the cell and is semipermeable to allow certain substances and water in and out.
-ribosomes manufacture proteins for the cell from the RNA messages.
-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) a tubular transport network within the cell.-There are two types: smooth and rough
-Golgi apparatus is involved in the packaging and transport of proteins in the cell including protein secretion.
-vesicles small membrane-bounded sacs within the cytoplasm.-used to transport proteins or other substances in or out of the cell.
-mitochondria the powerhouses of the cell-they are the locations where cellular fuel ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is produced.-Have a series of folds inside called cristae.--enzymes on cristae help convert sugar into ATP to power cell.
-microtubules celular tracks that, during mitosis, form the mitotic spindle.-spindle helps organize and segregate the chromosomes during cell division.Centrosomes are microtubule-organizing center that help to form and organize the mitotic spindle during mitosis.
-nucleus very large organelle in the central portion of the cell that is enclosed by a double membrane with pores in it.-control center of the entire cell--contains the cell's genetic material and directs all of the activities of the cell.
-nucleolus a small body within the nucleus and functions to produce ribosomes that get moved to the cytoplasm to make cell proteins.
-Cytoplasm inside the cell contains the cell contents and the organelles--is gel like.
--Very small bodies that are free-floating within the cytoplasm; proteins do most of the work in the cells.
--Rough ER is studded with ribosomes.
--smooth ER is important for numerous metabolic processes in the cell.
---ER is responsible for moving proteins from one part of cell to another
---for moving proteins to the outside of a cell (called secretion)
-refines proteins that have been manufactured by the ribosomes
-sorts proteins and prepares them for transport to other parts of the cell or to cell membrane for secretion.
-works hand in hand with ER in protein movement/ processing.
vacuoles -basic storage unit of the cell that can hold various compounds.
lysosomes -contains digestive enzymes that are capable of disposing of cellular debris and worn cellular parts.
peroxisomes -functions to rid the body of toxic components such as hydrogen peroxide.-also major sites of oxygen use and energy production.-liver contains many peroxisomes because toxic substances build up there.
Flagella (eukaryotic cell)some eukaryotic cells have whip-like projections.
Cilia -If there are more than a few they are called cilia
Plant cell vs eukaryotic cell Two main differences between these two types of cells are that a plant cell has chloroplasts and a cell wall and eukaryotic cell does not.
protein chain of amino acids
cell differentiation produces a more specialized cell from a less-specialized cell.
genes control differentiation -genes of each cell regulate the process of differentiation during all stages of development. differentiation determines what cell type each cell will become.--direct each cell when to form the particular proteins/ structures.
gastrulation most critical stage of the embryonic development. a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar ("three-layered") structure known as the gastrula.
mitosis process of cell duplication in which two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell.
Interphase- G1 phase DNA double helix unwinds to expose the bases
S phase DNA double helix unwinds with the help of enzymes.
G2 phase continued protein synthesis and cell growth in preparation for cell division.
Mitosis occurs to replace old and dying cells with genetically identical ones.-cells double content to pass one complete copy to each daughter cell.
meiosis: gametes cells that form a new organism via sexual reproduction.-gametes from one individual combine its DNA with DNA from another individual.Gametes reduce DNA content of combined DNA in a process called meiosis.
Meiosis purpose is to halve the number of chromosomes.-a benefit of meiosis is that it results in extra genetic variability.
-DIPLOID cells contain two sets of chromosomes.
-HAPLOID cells contain a single set of chromosomes.
HOMOLOGOUS chromosome- in a diploid cell it is the twin chromosome
chromatids (during S phase) individual chromosomes duplicate during the S phase and condense into chromosomes that have both copies of the individual chromosome attached at one spot to form sister chromatids.
cytokinesis separating of the two sets of chromosomes into different cells during Meiois/mitosis (Telophase)
Photosynthesis and Respiration Both result in the formation of cellular energy for an organism, but two processes differ in their end results
Photosynthesis the process carried out by green plants, green algae, and certain bacteria-energy from sunlight is trapped by the green pigment chlorophyll and used for synthesis of glucose.
-chloroplast organelle in plants that allows Photosynthesis to occur.
Photosynthesis --carbon dioxide, water, and energy form the sun are used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Autotroph an organism that is able to produce its own food (most use Photosynthesis to live)
Heterotrophs organisms that cannot produce their own food.
Respiration uses one of the end products of Photosynthesis, glucose to produce ATP for cells. (used by Heterotrophs)
Glycolysis Process of breaking down glucose to pyruvate-transfers some of the energy in glucose to ATP.End-products of glycolysis are fed into the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to produce even more ATP.
Kreb's Cycle / TCA cycle / Citric Acid cyle -glycolyisis + citric acid cycle = respiration
respiration chemical equation for cellular respiration is the reverse of that of Photosynthesis.
Hereditary information Chromosomes are located in the nucleus of a cell and contain stretches of DNA called Genes.
Genes contain coded information that controls the heredity of certain traits.-code is made up of the sequences of nitrogenous bases of DNA:
Each piece of code is called a CODON (composed of 3 bases) -there are 64 codons-each codon matches to a specific AMINO ACID. (20 different amino acids)A chain of amino acids then forms a protein.
genome a complete set of DNA for an individual that contains all genes.
mutagen a substance that induces mutations(harmful chemicals, ultraviolet rays from the sun)
mismatch repair after new DNA has been replicated this mechanism scans over the DNA to find any mismatches of bases.-if mismatches are found it repairs them by removing the incorrect base and replacing it with the proper one.
Excision repair mechanisms inspect DNA for a cell exposed to certain substances capable of damaging DNA
germ cells reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum. germ cells can pass on mutations to the next generation.
phenotypes physical expressions of genetic traits
genotype organism's underlying genetic makeup or code.
homozygous both parents give the offspring the same allele
heterozygous each parent gives the offspring a different allele for a particular trait.
incomplete dominance when the dominant and recessive genotypes interact to produce an intermediate phenotype. ( mix of two traits)
Law of dominance if two parents are pure for contrasting traits, only one form of the trait will appear in the offspring.
light years distance that light will travel in 1 year
electromagnetic waves waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields
bands of wavelengths ordered from short to long gamma ray-x-ray-ultraviolet-visible-infrared-microwave-radio wave
Visible part of spectrum: (from long to short)Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet
work the results of any change in energy; measured in Joules (J)
kinetic energy the amount of energy associated with an objects motion may be quantified through a calculation of its kinetic energy (KE)
(energy of motion) *doubling of velocity will cause the KE to increase by a factor of four times
Kinetic energy KE=1/2mv^2 m=the mass of an object v=the velocity of an object
potential energy (PE) stored energy PE=mgh m=the mass of the object g=standard gravity constant (10 m/s^2) h=the height at which an object is located
conservation of energy when a system is closed the energy is turning from one form to another.
Law of conservation of energy energy is not lost but rather is transferred back and forth between KE and PE Increase in KE= decrease in PE
Matter anything that takes up space and has mass.
Mass the quantity of matter an object has
Elements substances that cannot be broken into simple types of matter.
Atom the smallest part of an element that still retains all the original properties of that element
Protons positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom. Number of protons distinguishes one atom from another.
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element (ordering device for the periodic table)
neutrons NEUTRAL subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom.(do not contribute to the charge of an atom)
electrons negatively charged subatomic particles found in various energy levels (orbital shells) around the nucleus
ion a positively or negatively charged atom
mass number the total number of protons and neutrons found within the nucleus of an atom.
atomic mass the average mass of all of the known isotopes of an element (most cases represents the most common isotope)
isotopes atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
acidic solutions solutions with a pH less than 7
basic solutions solutions with a pH more than 7
standard of neutrality pure H2O @ 25 degrees celcius pH= 7
pH scale stronger acids= smaller number weaker acids = larger number stronger bases = larger number weaker bases = smaller number
pH pH value is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration within a solution.
pH = -log (a subH) suppose the activity of hydrogen ions in solution si 1 part per thousand (i.e., 1/1,000 or 0.001)
In scientific notation, this number equals 1 x 10^-3. To calculate pH do the following: pH= -log (a sub H)pH= -log (1x10^-3)pH= -(-3)pH= 3
Catalysts control the rate of chemical reactions, or reactions in which atoms react to come to a stable state.-catalysts increase reaction rates by lowering activation energy.
substrate the molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme
general catalytic reaction process In this process, the catalyst (C) generates a product (Z) from the reactants (X and Y). Notice that the catalyst is present with the product, and is thus available to continue the reaction anew. 1) X + C → XC 2) XC + Y → XYC 3) XYC → CZ 4) CZ → C + Z
Within a given family on the periodic table atomic radii INCREASES while electronegativity DECREASES
electronegativity a measure of an atom's attraction on electrons in a chemical bond.*The greater the electronegativity of an atom, the GREATER its attraction for bonding electrons.
orbital shells the arrangement of electrons within orbits around the nucleus
Enzymes act as the catalysts for special chemical reactions within the human body.-enzymes are found as protein molecules (organic compounds composed of amino acids) within the body tissue.
Globular proteins (proteins that are water soluble)are built from amino acids that form chains ranging from a few dozen to thousands of members.
Saturated hydrocarbons (also known as alkanes)most basic structure of the hydrocarbons.
SATURATED (carbon is completely connected) with hydrogen.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms.
ALKENES : one double bond
ALKYNES : triple bonds
Zigzag stairstep (Periodic table) Metals are to the left, nonmetals are to the right, and metalloids are in contact with the stairstep line.
Metalloids elements that may accept or donate electrons readily, and possess a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties.
Cation positive ion (tends to be metallic ion)
anion negative ion (tends to be nonmetallic ion)
covalent bond a form of chemical bonding that involves electron sharing between atoms
ionic bonds An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation, which is usually a metal, and an anion, which is usually a nonmetal.
metallic bonds electrostatic attractive forces between the delocalized e-s conduction e-s, gathered in an "electron sea", and the pos charged metal ions the sharing of "free" e-s among a lattice cations, metallic bonding is sometimes comp with molten salts;
Lewis structure provide visual representations of covalent bonding between atoms of a molecule
Henry Moseley proposed that the (current) periodic table be modified such that elements would be arranged by atomic number.
reactants formulas on the left side of the reaction sign (→) are substances consumed or altered in the chemical reaction.
products substances formed as the results of a chemical reaction. Located to the right of the of (→).
Oxidation/reductions Oxidation: involves electron donation to produce a more positive ion.Reduction: involves electron acceptance to produce a more negative ion.
acid is any compound with a hydrogen ion activity greater than water (pH<7)
base is any compound with a hydrogen ion activity less than water (pH>7)
acid/base reactions acid^+ (+) base‾ → salt + water
Heat the flow of energy due to a difference in temperature
Liquid to gas: through evaporation or vaporization, requires an addition of heat.
gas to liquid: through condensation requires a subtraction of heat.
evaporation of a liquid often achieved due to the high heat, low humidity and fast movement of surrounding air mass.
-physical collisions at surface layer of a liquid. --removes faster moving molecules, removing more energetic atoms from liquid.Results in cooler system.
phase transition an alteration of the physical state between a solid, liquid, and gas.
vaporization occurs through a phase transition from a liquid to gas.
Phase Transition -transition from a liquid to a gas takes place by breaking the physical bonds within the liquid.-Amount of heat (H) for this phase depends on mass (M) and latent heat (L)
Latent heat Latent heat is the heat released or absorbed by a chemical substance or a thermodynamic system during a change of state that occurs without a change in temperature, meaning a phase transition such as the melting of ice or the boiling of water.
Vaporization Example Suppose a 100-gram (g) mass of water is at the boiling point. Given that the latent heat of water is 540 calories/gram (cal/g), the amount of heat added to fully vaporize the liquid can be calculated by:
H=M x L =100g x 540 cal/g =54,000 cal =54 kilocalories
condensation example H=-M x L condensation occurs through a phase transition from a gas to a liquid-creating physical bonds within the gas
direct object answers the question what after the verb. ex. The young boys enjoy soccer practice. WHAT do the boys enjoy? practice
prepositions mnemonic about a box:The boy can sit:ON the boxBY the boxABOVE the boxBELOW the boxAROUND the boxNEAR the boxalso to and from.
adverbs answer question: how and where modify: verbs, adj, other adverbs, (-ly) ending; possessive pronouns
subject verb agreement or / nor is used to connect subjects that are singular, a singular verb is used.when AND is used, a plural verb is necessary.ex. Neither Mark NOR Ann ENJOYS studying English, but both Mark AND Ann ENJOY studying math.
antecedent the noun that a pronoun refers back to.Mom wen to the store for her supplies. MOM is the antecedent for HER
Each citizen is to become involved in his or her local politics. do not use THEIR with a singular antecedent use his or her (singular) CITIZEN is the antecedent for the singular his, her do not use THEIR in this example.
attributive tag part of the sentence that indicates who said a direct quote. ALEX said, "What........Comma will follow or precede an attribute tag
coordinating conjunctions for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so FANBOYS
subordinating conjunction word that joins two or more clauses and make the clause that contains it dependent on another clause; therefore, the clause that contains the subordinating conjunction is of less importance
as if
nominalization making of a noun from a verb, adverb, or adjective.
active verb verb that show an action performed by the subject of the sentence.
example of active verb vs nomialization 1) nominalization My aunt made a STATEMENT about the red vehicle.
2) Active verb my aunt STATED the red vehicle....
etymology history of a given word or its origin.
suffix ia, y: state or condition
ic, ical, ac: having to do with
ism: belief in
ology: study of
or, er: one who takes part in
root words arch: ruler
audio: sound
bio: life
chrom: color
geo: earth
graph: written
morph: form
ortho: correct
ped: foot
terra: earth
therm: heat
simple sentences contains only one clause that has a complete meaning. (no dependent clauses)
topic sentence at or near beginning of paragraph to tie the paragraph to the overall theme and provide a clear transition.
periodic sentence often contains a string of parallel modifiers followed by the main clause.
cumulative sentence opposite of periodic sentence--main clause followed by string of parallel modifiers
theme are subject that a written work frequently touches upon.
text structure the way in which a given text is organized.
Text structure sequence: bulleted or numbered list.
problem-solution: state problem then solution either in same paragraph or different ones.
comparison-contrast: two different cases.
cause-effect: normally action first and then describes the effects
description: tend to describe or characterize a person, thing or idea.
math expression word OF: multiply
word IS: equals
PEMDAS Parentheses
Roman Numerals D=500
X= 10
I = 1
When I, X, C is used to the left of a larger , subtract its value from the larger
I,X,C may be written 2 or 3 times in a row as long as they are not followed by a larger .
never used to left of larger
never used more than one time
Roman Numeral example 825
800 = 500 +100 +100 +100, so DCCC
20 = 10+ 10, so XX
5 = 5, so V
What percent of a whole is the part? ex. A test is worth 80 points; student gets a 71 The whole is the original value. The part is the new value. 71/80 = 0.8875 or 88.75%
Ratio relationship between two quantiies 4/5, 4:5, ratio 4 to 5 Always written in simplest form.
proportion two ratios that are equal numerators and the denominators of both ratios must be in the same units.
a/b = c/d to solve cross multiply a/d = b/c
variables independent variable is put into a set of data dependent variable is the output based on input.
X value USUALLY independent value
Y value USUALLY dependent value
line graphs show changes over a period of time OR compares the relationship of 2 quantities
Circle or pie graphs divided into sectors representing the frequency of an event.
Whole circle/pie = 100% often represent a PERCENTAGE of the WHOLE
Histograms/ bar charts compare the frequencies of an event
Histograms: continuous data
bar charts: non-continuous data
FOIL First Outer Inner Last
Absolute Value Equations No solution/ All Reals as solution
Mols 1 mol = mass in grams of an element 1 mol/atomic mass use for conversion to mols
Created by: JaeLaw23



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When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

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