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Hesi A2 VOCAB
|(SAM LIP) superior, anterior, medial, lateral, inferior, posterior,
|Terms of direction usually used in reference to limbs
|proximal and distal
|closest to the point of attachment
|furthest from the point of attachment
|dorsal cavity includes
|cranial and spinal cavities
|ventral cavity includes
|orbits, nasal, thoracic, and abdominal cavities
|the study of tissue
|A _______ is a group of cells that act together to perform specific functions.
|Types of Tissues Found in Body
|epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve tissues
|____________ cells cover, line, and protect, the body and its internal organs.
|___________ cells that are the framework of the body, providing support and structure for organs.
|_________ cells that is composed of neurons and connective tissue cells that are referred to neuroglia.
|________ cells that have the ability to contract or shorten.
|voluntary and involuntary
|What are the two groups muscle tissue is classified as?
|What type of muscle is voluntary?
|smooth and cardiac muscle
|What type of muscle is involuntary?
|The _________ is the basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs.
|Within the cell there are ________ and each has a specific function.
|The _____ contains DNA and ribosomes.
|_______ include the enzymes that regulate all chemical reactions within the body.
|________ is necessary for growth and repair.
|During ______ the DNA is duplicated and distributed evenly to 2 daughter cells.
|_______ is the special cell division that takes place in the gonads, the ovaries and testes.
|In the process of ______, the chromosomes number is reduces from 46 to 23.
|So when the egg and sperm unite in fertilization, the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes.
|Why do the chromosomes reduce from 46 to 23 during meiosis?
|Mucous, cutaneous, serous and synovial (MCSS)
|What are the 4 principal kinds of membranes and are composed mainly of epithelial tissue?
|Mucous, cutaneous, serous and synovial (MCSS) are composed mainly of what type of tissue?
|sudoriferous, ceruminous, sebaceous (SCS)
|Name the 3 types of glands
|_________ is replaced by bone during embryonic development.
|What is found mainly in the joints, the thorax, and various rigid tubes?
|What is the largest organ of the body?
|epidermis and dermis
|The skin consists of 2 layers, name them.
|The outer most protective skin layer consisting of dead keratinized epithelial cells.
|the underlying skin layer of connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and the associated skin structures.
|The ______ rests on the subcutaneous tissue that connects the skin to the superficial miscles.
|stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum and inner-most stratum germinativum
|name the layers of the epidermis from outer to inner
|Epidermal cells contain protein pigments called______.
|What protects the skin from radiation from the sun
|the inner layer of the skin is the ____.
|fibrous connective tissue with blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, hair follicles, and glands
|The dermis is composed of
|How many types of sweat glands are there?
|the most widely distributed sweat gland is called the
|this type of sweat gland regulates body temp by releasing a water secretion that evaporates.
|This type of sweat gland is found mainly in the arm pits and groin area, display what type of secretion
|This type of secretion contains bits of cytoplasm from the secreting cell. This type of cell debris attracts bacteria.
|cell debris from apocrine secretion attracts bacteria and results in
|This type of gland releases and oily secretion through the hair follicles and lubricates the skin.
|the oil released through hair follicles is called
|Oil is produced by what type of secretion
|These glands are susceptible to becoming clogged and attracting bacteria, particularly during adolescence
|hair and nails are composed of strong protein called
|bone, cartilage, ligaments, plus joints between the bones
|the body framework consists of
|support, permission of movement, blood cell formation, protection of internal organs, detoxification, provision of muscle attachment, and mineral storage
|functions of the skeletal system include
|blood cell formation
|removal of poisons
|Ca, and P
|particular mineral storage
|individual bones are classified by shape
|long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones
|Name the different types of bones
|name a type of sesamoid bone
|A typical long bone has
|an irregular epiphysis at each end, composed mainly of spongy bone, and a shaft or diaphysis, composed mainly of compact bone
|The cells that form compact bone are
|When these become fixed in the dense bone matrix, they stop dividing but continue to maintain bone tissue as
|The axial skeleton consists of _____ bones of the skull.
|14 facial and 14 cranium
|The skull bones are separated into 2 groups, they are
|2 nasal bones, 2 maxillary bones, 2 zygomatic, one mandible, 2 palatine, one vomer, 2 lacrimal, and 2 inferior nasal conchae
|The 14 facial bones are
|single occipital, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid, paired parietal, temporal, and ossicles of the ear
|The 14 bones of the cranium
|malleus, incus, stapes
|name the 3 ossicles of the ear
|The axial skeleton has____ bones of the vetebral column.
|7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae, five lumbar vertebrae, 5 sacral vertebrae, and the coccygeal vertebrae
|The axial skeleton
|5 sacral vertebrae are fused together to form the
|the coccygeal vertebrae is commonly known as
|thorax, sternum, and the 12 pairs of ribs
|The final portion of the axial skeleton consists of
|girdles and limbs
|The appendicular skeleton includes the
|the shoulder girdle is also known as the
|pectoral or shoulder girdle, clavicle and scapula, and the upper extremity
|The upper portion of the appendicular skeleton includes
|humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges
|The bones of the arms
|the wrist bones are known as
|Commonly known as the bones of the hands
|bones of the fingers
|pelvic girdle or os coxae
|The lower portion of the appendicular skeleton
|This consists of a fused ilium, ishium, and pubis
|femur (thigh bone), tibia and fibula, tarsals (ankle), metatarsals (bones of the foot), phalanges
|Bones of the lower extremeties include
|Common name for the femur
|bones of the foot
|Produces movement by contracting in response to nervous stimulation
|actin and myosin
|Muscle contraction results from the sliding together of
|Each muscle cell consists of
|Myofibrils are made up of still smaller units called
|Calcium and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
|In order for a muscle cell to contract this must be present
|Motor neurons stimulation cause release of calcium ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca ions proteins on actin filaments. Using energy supplied by ATP, filaments slide together to produce contraction.
|Identify the course of muscle contraction
|The skeletal muscles
|This makes up the muscular system
|The skeletal muscles
|These are also called voluntary muscles because they are under conscious control.
|Must work in pairs
|Prime mover, antagonist
|The muscle that executes a given movement is the _______. Whereas the muscle that produces the opposite movement is the________.
|These muscles may work in cooperation with the prime mover
|flexors and extensors
|Muscles can be classified according to the movement's they elicit they are the _____ and ______.
|This muscle reduces the angle at the joint.
|These muscles increase the angle at the joint.
|This muscle draws a limb away from the midline
|This muscle returns the limb back toward the body
|-starting at the head and moving to the feet, named a major contour muscles of the body. Review how muscles are named -some for their function, others for their location or the numbers of points of origin.
|brain, spinal cord, nerves
|The nervous system consists essentially of the
|The _______ system enables us to perceive many of the changes that take place in our external and internal environments and to respond to those changes.
|The nervous system works closely with _______.
|Digestion and reproduction
|The endocrine glands and the nervous system work closely together correlating and integrating body functions such as _______ and _______.
|These are the functional units of the nervous system
|All actions of the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over ______.
|cell body, axon, dendrites
|The main part of an neuron are the
|This part of the neuron transmits the impulse toward the cell body
|This part of the neuron transmits the impulse away from the cell body
|Central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS)
|The nervous system may be divided structurally into a ___ and ____.
|The ______ consists of all the nerves that transmit information to and from the CNS.
|Also known as sensory neurons
|Sensory (afferent) neurons transmit nerve impulses ______ the CNS.
|Also known as motor neurons
|Away and toward
|Motor (efferent) norms transmit nerve impulses ______ from the CNS and ____ the effector organs.
|muscles, glands and digestive organs
|The effects are organs are
|cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata
|The major parts of the brain are
|This part of the brain is associated with movement and sensory input
|Is part of the brain is responsible for muscular coordination
|This part of the brain controls many model functions such as respiration and heart rate.
|The spinal cord is approximately ____long.
|skull, L1 or L2
|The spinal cord extends from the base of the ______ two the ________ or _____ vertebrae.
|Cavity composed of the abdomen and pelvis
|Movement of nutrients from the digestive tube into the bloodstream
|Protein making up the I baned of the sarcomere
|The building block of proteins
|Special proteins that protect the body from foreign substances
|Abbreviation adenosine triphosphate, which is the energy of the cell.
|Upper chambers of the heart
|Product of the liver that emulsifies fat
|Tissue made of cells and fibers that connect and support
|gland of the ear that produces earwax
|Bodies within the nucleus made in DNA and proteins called the histones
|Small hair like projections on some cells
|Abbreviation for central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord
|Imaginary line passing through the body from head to feed that divides the body into front and back portions
|Body cavity containing the brain
|dome-shaped breathing muscles that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
|Movement of materials from high concentration to lower concentration
|The mechanical and chemical breakdown the food
|Crescent shaped projection of gray matter within the spinal cord where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord
|Prenatal development time between the zygote in the fetus
|Inner lining of the uterus
|Functional proteins; their names usually end in - ase
|A passage in the skull bone in which the spinal cord enters the spinal column
|The blood cells.
|A simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits.
|The physiologic steady state that is naturally maintain within the body.
|Portion of the brain that regulates body temperature, sleep, and appetite.
|To eat food and drink
|Articulations between adjoining bones
|A tough, fibrous , insoluble protein forming the primary component of skin, hair, nails, and tooth enamel.
|The dead cells of the epidermis
|Found within the villi of intestinal wall, where that nutrients are absorbed.
|Tissue connecting bone a bone
|An imaginary line dividing the body or body parts into right and left portions
|Space within the thoracic cavity that houses all the organs of the chest except the lungs.
|The sum total of uses an ATP in the body.
|Thin sheets of tissue cells that line body openings or canals that open to the outside of the body.
|A protein that makes at nearly half of the proteins in muscle cells.
|The control center of the cell.
|The mouth; also known as the buccal cavity
|Cabbies containing the eyes
|A structurally discrete component of a cell that performs a specific function
|Measurement associated with acids and bases
|Engulfing of materials by certain cells of the body
|The liquid portion of blood
|Blood flow through a network of vessels between the heart and the lungs for the oxygenation of blood and the removal of carbon dioxide
|The organelle of the cell where protein synthesis takes place
|An imaginary line running from front to back that divides the body into right and left portions
|Organelle of the muscle fiber that stores calcium
|Oil glands of the skin
|Then sheets of tissue that line body cavities not having the exits to the outside
|The backbone that protects the spinal cord, which runs inside of it
|Layer of tissue under the dermis that containes adipose tissue
|Loose, connective tissue that lines the joint cavity
|The general blood circulation of the body, not including the lungs
|The chest cavity
|An imaginary line dividing the body or body parts into top and bottom portions
|A narrowing of the diameter of a blood vessel
|A widening of the diameter of a blood vessel
|The anterior columns of the gray matter at the spinal cord
|Lower chambers of the heart
|The fertilized egg, from the time it is fertilized until it is implanted in the uterus
|most reflex pathways inv impulses traveling to and from the brain in ascsending and descending tracts of the spinal cord. Sensory impulses enter the dorsal horns of the spinal cord, and motor in pulses leave through the ventral horns of the spinal cord
|This system assist the nervous system in homeostasis and plays important roles in the growth and sexual maturation
|The _______governs the pituitary gland and is in turn controlled by the feedback of the hormones and the blood.
|Endocrine and nervous system
|These two systems meet at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
|Nervous and endocrine system
|The ______ and _______ coordinate and control the body
|This system has more long lasting and widespread effects
|______ are chemical messengers that control the growth, differentiation, and metabolism of specific target cells
|Steroid and protein hormones
|Name the two major groups of hormones
|This hormone enters the target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus
|Most of this hormone remains at the cell surface and acts through a second messenger.
|adenosine mono phosphate
|The second messenger for most protein hormones is called
|-mult hormones are released during stress from the adrenal cortex, the hypothalamus, and the post and ant pituitary. The cortisol release from the adrenal cortex reduces inflammation, raises the blood sugar level, and inhibits the release of histamine.
|This is nicknamed the master gland
|the pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the
|anterior lobe (andenohypophysis) and posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
|pituitary gland has 2 major portions called
|the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is also called
|the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is also called
|Hormones of the adenohypophysis are called
|Tropic hormones of the adenohypophysis act mainly on the _________ glands
|The STH is also known as
|STH or GH, TSH, FH, LH
|The hormones the tropic hormones act mainly upon other endocrine glands that include (5 types)
|oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
|hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary include
|oxytocin is what kind of hormone?
|ADH stands for
|Identify all the endocrine glands a location and give function and major hormone produced
|Study clinical conditions associated with the endocrine system
|______ are chemical messengers that control the growth, differentiation, and metabolism of specific target cells.
|55% plasma, 45% formed elements
|Whole blood consists of 55% _______, and 45% ________.
|erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
|the formed elements of blood are
|red blood cells
|erythrocytes of the formed elements are known as
|white blood cells
|leukocytes of the formed elements are known as
|Erythrocytes are modified for the transport of _______.
|_(blood element)___ are modified for the transport of O2.
|bone marrow, stem cells
|All formed elements of blood are produced in the _________ of ___________.
|The pigmented portion that most O2 is bound to is the protein _______.
|size, appearance of the nucleus, staining properties, and presence of or absence of visible cytoplasmic granuales
|The 5 types of leukocytes can be distinguished on the basis of