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Directional terms (SAM LIP) superior, anterior, medial, lateral, inferior, posterior,
Terms of direction usually used in reference to limbs proximal and distal
above superior
below inferior
front anterior
back posterior
midline medial
closest to the point of attachment proximal
furthest from the point of attachment distal
dorsal cavity includes cranial and spinal cavities
ventral cavity includes orbits, nasal, thoracic, and abdominal cavities
Histology the study of tissue
tissue A _______ is a group of cells that act together to perform specific functions.
Types of Tissues Found in Body epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve tissues
Epithelial tissue ____________ cells cover, line, and protect, the body and its internal organs.
Connective tissue ___________ cells that are the framework of the body, providing support and structure for organs.
Nerve tissue _________ cells that is composed of neurons and connective tissue cells that are referred to neuroglia.
Muscle tissue ________ cells that have the ability to contract or shorten.
voluntary and involuntary What are the two groups muscle tissue is classified as?
Skeletal muscle What type of muscle is voluntary?
smooth and cardiac muscle What type of muscle is involuntary?
cell The _________ is the basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs.
organelles Within the cell there are ________ and each has a specific function.
nucleus The _____ contains DNA and ribosomes.
Proteins _______ include the enzymes that regulate all chemical reactions within the body.
Mitosis ________ is necessary for growth and repair.
Mitosis During ______ the DNA is duplicated and distributed evenly to 2 daughter cells.
Meiosis _______ is the special cell division that takes place in the gonads, the ovaries and testes.
Meiosis In the process of ______, the chromosomes number is reduces from 46 to 23.
So when the egg and sperm unite in fertilization, the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes. Why do the chromosomes reduce from 46 to 23 during meiosis?
Mucous, cutaneous, serous and synovial (MCSS) What are the 4 principal kinds of membranes and are composed mainly of epithelial tissue?
epithelial Mucous, cutaneous, serous and synovial (MCSS) are composed mainly of what type of tissue?
sudoriferous, ceruminous, sebaceous (SCS) Name the 3 types of glands
Cartilage _________ is replaced by bone during embryonic development.
Cartilage What is found mainly in the joints, the thorax, and various rigid tubes?
Skin What is the largest organ of the body?
epidermis and dermis The skin consists of 2 layers, name them.
epidermis The outer most protective skin layer consisting of dead keratinized epithelial cells.
dermis the underlying skin layer of connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and the associated skin structures.
dermis The ______ rests on the subcutaneous tissue that connects the skin to the superficial miscles.
stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum and inner-most stratum germinativum name the layers of the epidermis from outer to inner
melanin Epidermal cells contain protein pigments called______.
melanin What protects the skin from radiation from the sun
dermis the inner layer of the skin is the ____.
fibrous connective tissue with blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, hair follicles, and glands The dermis is composed of
2 How many types of sweat glands are there?
eccrine the most widely distributed sweat gland is called the
eccrine this type of sweat gland regulates body temp by releasing a water secretion that evaporates.
apocrine This type of sweat gland is found mainly in the arm pits and groin area, display what type of secretion
apocrine This type of secretion contains bits of cytoplasm from the secreting cell. This type of cell debris attracts bacteria.
body odor cell debris from apocrine secretion attracts bacteria and results in
sebaceous This type of gland releases and oily secretion through the hair follicles and lubricates the skin.
sebum the oil released through hair follicles is called
holocrine Oil is produced by what type of secretion
sebaceous These glands are susceptible to becoming clogged and attracting bacteria, particularly during adolescence
keratin hair and nails are composed of strong protein called
bone, cartilage, ligaments, plus joints between the bones the body framework consists of
support, permission of movement, blood cell formation, protection of internal organs, detoxification, provision of muscle attachment, and mineral storage functions of the skeletal system include
hemopoiesis blood cell formation
removal of poisons detoxification
Ca, and P particular mineral storage
shape individual bones are classified by shape
long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones Name the different types of bones
patella name a type of sesamoid bone
A typical long bone has an irregular epiphysis at each end, composed mainly of spongy bone, and a shaft or diaphysis, composed mainly of compact bone
osteoblasts The cells that form compact bone are
osteocytes When these become fixed in the dense bone matrix, they stop dividing but continue to maintain bone tissue as
28 The axial skeleton consists of _____ bones of the skull.
14 facial and 14 cranium The skull bones are separated into 2 groups, they are
2 nasal bones, 2 maxillary bones, 2 zygomatic, one mandible, 2 palatine, one vomer, 2 lacrimal, and 2 inferior nasal conchae The 14 facial bones are
single occipital, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid, paired parietal, temporal, and ossicles of the ear The 14 bones of the cranium
malleus, incus, stapes name the 3 ossicles of the ear
33 The axial skeleton has____ bones of the vetebral column.
7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae, five lumbar vertebrae, 5 sacral vertebrae, and the coccygeal vertebrae The axial skeleton
sacrum 5 sacral vertebrae are fused together to form the
tailbone the coccygeal vertebrae is commonly known as
thorax, sternum, and the 12 pairs of ribs The final portion of the axial skeleton consists of
girdles and limbs The appendicular skeleton includes the
pectoral the shoulder girdle is also known as the
pectoral or shoulder girdle, clavicle and scapula, and the upper extremity The upper portion of the appendicular skeleton includes
humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges The bones of the arms
carpals the wrist bones are known as
metacarpals Commonly known as the bones of the hands
phalanges bones of the fingers
pelvic girdle or os coxae The lower portion of the appendicular skeleton
os coxae This consists of a fused ilium, ishium, and pubis
femur (thigh bone), tibia and fibula, tarsals (ankle), metatarsals (bones of the foot), phalanges Bones of the lower extremeties include
thigh Common name for the femur
tarsals ankle bones
metatarsals bones of the foot
Muscles Produces movement by contracting in response to nervous stimulation
actin and myosin Muscle contraction results from the sliding together of
myofibrils Each muscle cell consists of
sarcomeres Myofibrils are made up of still smaller units called
Calcium and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) In order for a muscle cell to contract this must be present
Motor neurons stimulation cause release of calcium ions from sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca ions proteins on actin filaments. Using energy supplied by ATP, filaments slide together to produce contraction. Identify the course of muscle contraction
The skeletal muscles This makes up the muscular system
The skeletal muscles These are also called voluntary muscles because they are under conscious control.
Skeletal muscles Must work in pairs
Prime mover, antagonist The muscle that executes a given movement is the _______. Whereas the muscle that produces the opposite movement is the________.
synergists These muscles may work in cooperation with the prime mover
flexors and extensors Muscles can be classified according to the movement's they elicit they are the _____ and ______.
Flexors This muscle reduces the angle at the joint.
Extensors These muscles increase the angle at the joint.
abductors This muscle draws a limb away from the midline
adductors This muscle returns the limb back toward the body
Hesi Challenge -starting at the head and moving to the feet, named a major contour muscles of the body. Review how muscles are named -some for their function, others for their location or the numbers of points of origin.
brain, spinal cord, nerves The nervous system consists essentially of the
Nervous system The _______ system enables us to perceive many of the changes that take place in our external and internal environments and to respond to those changes.
Endocrine glands The nervous system works closely with _______.
Digestion and reproduction The endocrine glands and the nervous system work closely together correlating and integrating body functions such as _______ and _______.
Neurons These are the functional units of the nervous system
Neurons All actions of the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over ______.
cell body, axon, dendrites The main part of an neuron are the
Dendrites This part of the neuron transmits the impulse toward the cell body
Axon This part of the neuron transmits the impulse away from the cell body
Central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) The nervous system may be divided structurally into a ___ and ____.
PNS The ______ consists of all the nerves that transmit information to and from the CNS.
afferent Also known as sensory neurons
Toward Sensory (afferent) neurons transmit nerve impulses ______ the CNS.
Efferent Also known as motor neurons
Away and toward Motor (efferent) norms transmit nerve impulses ______ from the CNS and ____ the effector organs.
muscles, glands and digestive organs The effects are organs are
cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata The major parts of the brain are
Cerebrum This part of the brain is associated with movement and sensory input
Cerebellum Is part of the brain is responsible for muscular coordination
Medulla oblongata This part of the brain controls many model functions such as respiration and heart rate.
18 inches The spinal cord is approximately ____long.
skull, L1 or L2 The spinal cord extends from the base of the ______ two the ________ or _____ vertebrae.
Cavity composed of the abdomen and pelvis Abdominopelvic
Movement of nutrients from the digestive tube into the bloodstream Absorption
Protein making up the I baned of the sarcomere Actin
The building block of proteins Amino acid
Special proteins that protect the body from foreign substances Antibody
Abbreviation adenosine triphosphate, which is the energy of the cell. ATP
Upper chambers of the heart Atria
Product of the liver that emulsifies fat Bile
Tissue made of cells and fibers that connect and support Cartilage
gland of the ear that produces earwax ceruminous gland
Bodies within the nucleus made in DNA and proteins called the histones Chromosomes
Small hair like projections on some cells Cilia
Abbreviation for central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord CNS
Imaginary line passing through the body from head to feed that divides the body into front and back portions Coronal
Body cavity containing the brain Cranial cavity
dome-shaped breathing muscles that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities Diaphragm
Movement of materials from high concentration to lower concentration Diffusion
The mechanical and chemical breakdown the food Digestion
Crescent shaped projection of gray matter within the spinal cord where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord Dorsal horn
Prenatal development time between the zygote in the fetus Embryo
Inner lining of the uterus Endometrium
Functional proteins; their names usually end in - ase Enzymes
A passage in the skull bone in which the spinal cord enters the spinal column Foramen
The blood cells. Formed elements
A simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits. Glucose
The physiologic steady state that is naturally maintain within the body. Homeostasis
Portion of the brain that regulates body temperature, sleep, and appetite. hypothalamus
To eat food and drink Ingest
Articulations between adjoining bones Joints
A tough, fibrous , insoluble protein forming the primary component of skin, hair, nails, and tooth enamel. Kertin
The dead cells of the epidermis keratinized epithelium
Found within the villi of intestinal wall, where that nutrients are absorbed. lacteal vessel
Tissue connecting bone a bone Ligaments
An imaginary line dividing the body or body parts into right and left portions Median plane
Space within the thoracic cavity that houses all the organs of the chest except the lungs. Mediastinum
The sum total of uses an ATP in the body. Metabolism
Thin sheets of tissue cells that line body openings or canals that open to the outside of the body. Mucous membrane
A protein that makes at nearly half of the proteins in muscle cells. Myosin
The control center of the cell. Nucleus
The mouth; also known as the buccal cavity Oral cavity
Cabbies containing the eyes Orbits
A structurally discrete component of a cell that performs a specific function Organelle
Measurement associated with acids and bases pH
Engulfing of materials by certain cells of the body Phagocytosis
The liquid portion of blood Plasma
Blood flow through a network of vessels between the heart and the lungs for the oxygenation of blood and the removal of carbon dioxide Pulmonary circulation
The organelle of the cell where protein synthesis takes place Ribosome
An imaginary line running from front to back that divides the body into right and left portions Sagittal
Organelle of the muscle fiber that stores calcium Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Oil glands of the skin sebaceous glands
Then sheets of tissue that line body cavities not having the exits to the outside Serous membranes
The backbone that protects the spinal cord, which runs inside of it Spinal column
Layer of tissue under the dermis that containes adipose tissue Subcutaneous tissue
Sweat glands sudoriferous glands
Loose, connective tissue that lines the joint cavity Synovial membranes
The general blood circulation of the body, not including the lungs systemic circulation
The chest cavity thoracic cavity
An imaginary line dividing the body or body parts into top and bottom portions Transverse plane
A narrowing of the diameter of a blood vessel Vasoconstriction
A widening of the diameter of a blood vessel Vasodilation
The anterior columns of the gray matter at the spinal cord ventral horns
Lower chambers of the heart Ventricles
The fertilized egg, from the time it is fertilized until it is implanted in the uterus Zygote
...HESI Hint- most reflex pathways inv impulses traveling to and from the brain in ascsending and descending tracts of the spinal cord. Sensory impulses enter the dorsal horns of the spinal cord, and motor in pulses leave through the ventral horns of the spinal cord
Endocrine system This system assist the nervous system in homeostasis and plays important roles in the growth and sexual maturation
Hypothalamus The _______governs the pituitary gland and is in turn controlled by the feedback of the hormones and the blood.
Endocrine and nervous system These two systems meet at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Nervous and endocrine system The ______ and _______ coordinate and control the body
Endocrine system This system has more long lasting and widespread effects
Hormones ______ are chemical messengers that control the growth, differentiation, and metabolism of specific target cells
Steroid and protein hormones Name the two major groups of hormones
Steroid hormones This hormone enters the target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus
Protein hormones Most of this hormone remains at the cell surface and acts through a second messenger.
adenosine mono phosphate The second messenger for most protein hormones is called
...HESI hint -mult hormones are released during stress from the adrenal cortex, the hypothalamus, and the post and ant pituitary. The cortisol release from the adrenal cortex reduces inflammation, raises the blood sugar level, and inhibits the release of histamine.
pituitary gland This is nicknamed the master gland
infundibulum the pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the
anterior lobe (andenohypophysis) and posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) pituitary gland has 2 major portions called
adenohypophysis the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is also called
neurohypophysis the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is also called
tropic hormones Hormones of the adenohypophysis are called
endocrine glands Tropic hormones of the adenohypophysis act mainly on the _________ glands
Somatotropin Hormone STH
growth hormone GH
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone TSH
Follicle_Stimulating Hormone FSH
Luteinizing Hormone LH
growth hormones The STH is also known as
STH or GH, TSH, FH, LH The hormones the tropic hormones act mainly upon other endocrine glands that include (5 types)
oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone hormones of the posterior lobe of the pituitary include
larbor hormone oxytocin is what kind of hormone?
antidiuretic hormone ADH stands for
Identify all the endocrine glands a location and give function and major hormone produced
Study clinical conditions associated with the endocrine system
hormones ______ are chemical messengers that control the growth, differentiation, and metabolism of specific target cells.
55% plasma, 45% formed elements Whole blood consists of 55% _______, and 45% ________.
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets the formed elements of blood are
red blood cells erythrocytes of the formed elements are known as
white blood cells leukocytes of the formed elements are known as
O2 Erythrocytes are modified for the transport of _______.
erythrocytes _(blood element)___ are modified for the transport of O2.
bone marrow, stem cells All formed elements of blood are produced in the _________ of ___________.
hemoglobin The pigmented portion that most O2 is bound to is the protein _______.
size, appearance of the nucleus, staining properties, and presence of or absence of visible cytoplasmic granuales The 5 types of leukocytes can be distinguished on the basis of
Created by: JaeLaw23



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