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HA. Ch. 11

The Muscular System III: Muscles of the Appendicular Skeleton

QuestionAnswer
superficial muscles of the anterior and posterior thorax perform movements of the scapula
pectoralis minor is a flat, thin muscles that is directly beneath and obscured by the pec major
origin of pectoralis minor anterior surface of rips 3-5
insertion of pec minor coracoid process of scapula
action of pec minor draws scapula forward/downward (depresses glenoid cavity) with ribs fixed
when the scapula is fixed the pec minor draws rib cage superiorly
serratus anterior is a ...shaped muscles that lies fan...deep and inferior to pectoral muscles on lateral rib cage
serratus anterior forms the medial wall of axilla
origin of serratus ant. ribs 1-8
insertion of serratus ant. entire anterior surface of vertebral border of scapula
action of serratus ant. rotate scaupla so that its inferior angle moves laterally and upward
the serratus ant. is a prime mover to protract and hold scapula against chest wall
trapezius is the most superficial muscle of posterior thorax
trapezius has what shape triangle
the upper fibers of the trapezius run...middle fibers run...lower fibers run... inferiorly...horizontally...superiorly to scapula
origin of trapezius occiptial bone, ligamentum nuchae, c7-t12
insertion of trapezius acromion, clavicle, spine of scapula
action of trapezius stabilize, raise, retract, depress and rotates scapula/clavicle
trapezius can also extend the neck
levator scapulae is located at back and side of neck, deep to trapezius
levator scapulae is a thick straplike muscle
origin of levator scapulae transverse process of c1-4
insertion of levator scapulae medial border of scapula, superior to spine
action of levator scapulae elevates/adducts scapula in concert with superior fibers of trapezius
rhomboid major and minor are two rectangular shaped muscles lying deep to trapezius
origin of rhomboids spinous process of c7-t1 (minor) and t2-t5 (major)
insertion of rhomboids medial border of scapula
action of rhomboids stabilize scapula, adduct and perform downard rotation of the scapula
muscles crossing the shoulder joint perform movements of the humerus
pec. major is the large...shaped muscles covering the... fan...upper portion of the chest
pec major is divided into clavicular and sternal parts to form the anterior axillary fold
origin of pec major ribs 1-6, clavicle, sternum, aponeurosis of ext. oblique
insertion of pec major greater tubercle and lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
action of pec major prime mover of arm flexion; rotates arm medially, adducts arm against resistance
latissmus dorsi is the broad, flat muscles of the lumbar region
lat. dorsi is covered by trapezius superiorly
lat dorsi contributes to the posterior wall of axilla
origin of lat dorsi spinous process of inferior thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae, ribs 8-12
insertion of lat dorsi spirals around teres minor to insert into floor of intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
action of lat dorsi prime mover of arm extension, powerful arm adductor, medially rotates arm at shoulder; depresses scapula
deltoid is a thick multi... pennate muscle forming rounded shoulder muscle mass
deltoid is the perfect site for injection
origin of deltoid clavicle, spine of scapula and acromion
insertion of deltoid deltoid tuberosity
action of deltoid prime mover of arm abdcution WHEN ALL FIBERS CONTRACT SIMULTANEOUSLY, flexion/medial rotation of humerus, extension and lateral rotation of humerus
teres minor is a flat, thin muscle directly beneath and obscured by pect. major
origin of teres major inferior angle of scapula
insertion of teres major medial lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
action of teres major extends, medially rotates and adducts humerus
subscapularis forms part of the posterior wall of axilla
origin of subscapularis subscapular fossa
insertion of subscapularis lesser tubercule of humerus
action of subscapularis chief medial rotator of humerus, helps to hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity, thereby stabilizing shoulder joint
supraspinatus is named for its location on the posterior aspect of scapula; deep to trapezius
origin of supraspinatus supraspinous fossa of scapula
insertion of supraspinatus greater tubercle
action of supraspinatus initiates abduction at shoulder and stabilizes it
infraspinatus is partially covered by deltoid and trap.
origin of infraspinatus infraspinous fossa
insertion of infraspinatus greater tubercles
action of infraspinatus rotates arm laterally; helps hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity to stabilize it
teres minor is a small, elongated muscle located inferior to infraspinatus
origin of teres minor lateral border of scap
insertion of teres minor greater tubercle of humerus
action of teres minor rotates humerus laterally, stabilizes shoulder, adducts shoulder
coracobrachialis is what kind of muscle small, clydrical
origin of coracobrachialis coracoid process
insertion of coracobrachialis medial surface of humerus shaft
action of coracobrachialis flexion/adduction
coracobrachialis is a synergist of pec major
rotator cuff is made up of supra/infra spinatus, subscapularis, teres minor
muscles crossing the elbow joint perform flexion and extension of the forearm
triceps brachii is a large fleshy muscle, solely occupying the posterior compartment of the arm
triceps brachii has how many heads 3
origin of triceps brachii long head = infraglenoid tubercles. lateral head= back of humerus. medial head =humerall shaft distal to radial tuberosity
insertion of triceps brachii olecranon process of ulna
action of triceps brachii powerful forearm extensor (medial head is prime mover)
triceps brachii is an antagonist to the forearm flexors
the long head of triceps brachii performs extension and adduction at the shoulder joint
biceps brachii is a ....muscle whose bellies unite as insertion point is approached two
origin of biceps brachii coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle (long head)
insertion of biceps brachii radial tuberosity
action of biceps brachii flexion at elbow and shoulder and supinates forearm
brachialisis a strong muscle immediately deep to biceps brachii
origin of brachialis anterior, distal surface of humerus
insertion of brachialis coronoid process of ulna
action of brachialis major forearm flexor
brachioradialis is a superficial muscle of lateral forearm, extending from distal humerus to distal forearm
origin of brachioradialis lateral supracondylar ridge at distal end of humerus
insertion of brachioradialis base of styloid process of radius
action of brachioradialis synergis in forearm flexion, stabilize elbow during rapid flexion and extension
muscles of the forearm perform movements of the wrist, hand and fingers
flexor and extensor retinacula is a band-like thickening of deep fascia
the flexor and extensor retinacula firmly anchor the long tendons that insert in the hand distally
the retinaculum keep the tendons from jumping outward when the hand is hyperflexed/extended
palmar aponeurosis sheet-like tendinous extension of the insertion tendon of the palmaris longus muscle
pronator teres is a ...muscle and is seen in superficial view between two headed...proximal margins of brachioradialis and flexor carpi radialis
origin of pronator teres medial epicondlye of humerus, coronoid process of ulna
insertion of pronator teres lateral radius midshaft
action of pronator teres pronates forearm; weak flexor of elbow
flexor carpi radialis runs ... across the forearm; midway its fleshy belly is replaced by a... diagonally...flat tendon that becomes cord-like at wrist
origin of flexor carpi radialis medial epicondyle of humerus
insertion of flex. carp. radialis base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals
action of flex carp radialis powerful flexor of wrist; abducts hand. weak synergist of elbow flexion
palmaris longus is a small, fleshy muscle with a long insertion tendon, which is located superficial to the flexor retinaculum
the palmaris longus is a landmark anterior muscle whose tendon inserts into the palmar aponeurosis
origin of palmaris longus medial expicondyle of humerus
insertion of palmaris longus fascia of plam and flexor retinaculum
action of palmaris longus tenses skin of fascia of palm during hand movement, weak wrist flexor and synergist for elbow flexion
flexor carpi ulnaris is the most medial anterior muslce with 2 heads
origin of flex carp ulnaris medial epicondyle, olecranon process and posterior surface of ulna
insertion of flex carp ulnaris pisiform and hamate, base of 5th metacarpal
action of flex carp ulnaris flexor of wrist aand adducts hand in concert with extensor carpi ulnaris
flexor digitorum superficialis is a two headed muscle which is more...placed deep
origin of flex digi super medial epicondyle, coronoid process and shaft of radius
insertin of flex digi super 4 tendons in middle phalanges of fingers 2-5
brachioradialis is the most anterior muscle of the posterior fascial compartment
extensor carpi radialis parallels brachioradialis on lateral forearm and may blend with it
origin of ext. carp radialis lateral supracondylar ridge
insertion of ext. carp. radialis base of 2nd & 3rd metacarpals
action of ext. carp. radialis extend wrist in concert with the extensor carpi ulnaris and abducts wrist
extensor digitorum lies medial to extensor carp radialis
origin of ext. digi lateral epicondyle of humerus
insertion of ext. digi by 4 tendons into ext. expansions and distal philanges of digits 2-5
action of ext. digi extends little finger, prime mover of finger extension, extends wrist and abducts fingers
extensor carpi ulnaris is the most medial of superficial posterior muscles and is long and slender
origin of extensor carpi ulnaris lateral epicondyle
insertion of ext. carp ulnaris extend wrist in concert with ext. carpi radialis and addcut wrist with flexor carpi ulnaris
abductor pollicis longus is lateral and parallel to extensor pollicis longus, just distal to supinator
origin of abductor pollicis posterior surface of radius and ulna/interosseous membrane
insertion of abductor pollicis base of 1st metacarpal and trapezium
action of abductor pollicis abduct and extend the thumb
extensor pollicis is a deep muscle pair with a common origin and action
origin of ext pollicis dorsal shaft of radius and ulna/interosseous membrane
insertion of ext. pollicis base of proximal and distal phalanx of thumb
coccygeus is a small...muscle lying posterior to... and makes up the posterior part of the... triangular...levator ani...pelvic diaphragm
origin of coccygeus spine of ischium
insertion of coccygeus sacrum and coccyx
action of coccygeus support pelvic viscera and coccyx; pulls coccyx forward after it has been reflected posteriorly be defecation and childbirth
anterior and medial muscles of the thigh originate on the pelvis or backbone
iliopsoas is a composite of 2 closely related muscles whose fibers pass under the inguinal ligament
iliopsoas is made up of the iliacus and psoas major
iliacus is a large fan-shaped lateral muscle
origin of iliacus iliac fossa/ala of sacrum
insertion of iliacus lesser trochanter of femur via iliopsoas tendon
action of iliacus prime mover of thich flexion and flexion the trunk
psoas major is a longer, thicker,more medial muscle
origin of psoas major transverse processes, and bodies/discs of L1-L5 and t12
insertion of psoas major lesser trochanter of femur via iliopsoas tendon
action of psoas major same actions as iliacus, also lateral flexion of vertebral column
sartorius is the ...muscle in the body and is...; runs obliquely across...;crosses both longest...strap-like...anterior surface of thigh to knee...hip and knee joints
origin of sartorius anterior superior iliac spine
insertions of sartorius medial tibia
action of sartorius flexes, abducts and laterally roates thigh, flexes knee
medial muscles of thigh are the adductor muscles
adductor longus overlies the middle aspect of adductor magnus, most anterior of adductor muscles
origin of adductor longus pubis near pubic symphysis
insertion of adductor longus linea aspera of femur
action of adductor longus adduct, flexes and medially roates thigh
pectineus is a short flat muscle that overlies adductor brevis and abut adductor longus medially
origin of pectineus pectineal line of pubis
insertion of pectineus line from lesster trochanter to linea aspera
action of pectineus adduct, flexs, medially rotates thigh
gracilis origin inferior ramus and body of pusi and adjacent ischial ramus
insertion of gracilis medial surface of tibia
action of gracilis (walking) adduct/medially roates thigh, flexes and medially roates leg
rectus femoris is the superficial muscle of anterior thigh and runs straight down thigh
origin of rectus femoris anterior inferior iliac spine and acetabular rim
insertion of rectus femoris tibial tuberosity via quadriceps tendon, patella, patellar ligament
action of rectus femoris extends knee and flexes thigh at hip
vastus lateralis is the largest head of the quadriceps
origin of vastus lateralis greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, linea aspera
insertion of vastus lateralis same as rectus femoris
action of vastus lateralis extends and stabilizes the knee
vastus medialis origin linea aspera; medial supracondylar line, intertrochanteric line
insertion of medialis same as rectus femoris
action of vastus medialis extends knee, inferior fibers stabilize patella
tensor fasciae latae muscle is enclosed between fascia layers of anterolateral aspect of thigh
origin of tens fasc latae anterior aspect of iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine
insertion of tens fasc latae iliotibial tract
action of tens fasc latae steadies trunk on thigh by making the IT band taut, flexes and abducts thigh, rotates medially thigh and extends and laterally rotates knee
lateral rotators piriforms, gemellus superior/inferior, obturator externus/internus, quadratus femoris
piriformis is a pyramidal muscle located on back of hip joints
origin of piriformis anterolateral surface of sacrum
insertion of piriformis superior border of greater trochanter of femur
action of piriformis roates extended thigh laterally, abducts hip
obturator externus/internus are flat, triangular muscles deep in upper medial aspect of thigh
origin of abturator externus/internus lateral and medial margins of obturator foramen
insertion of ob. ext/int trochanteric fossa and medial surface of greater trochanter
action of ob. ext/int same as piriformis
gemellus superior/inferior are two small muscles with common insertion and actions (extrapelvic portions of obturator internus)
origin of gemelli ischial spine and tuberosity
insertion of gemelli greater trochanter
action of gemelli same as piriformis
quadratus femoris is short, thick and most inferior of lateral rotator muscles
origin of quadratus ischial tuberosity
insertion of quadratus intertrochanteric crest
action of quadratus rotates thigh laterally and stabilizes hip joint
hamstrings are prime movers of thigh extension and knee flexion
biceps femoris is the most lateral muscle of the group
o of biceps femori ischial tuberosity, linea aspera, lateral supracondylar line
i of biceps femoris head of fibula and lateral condyl of tibia
a of biceps femoris extend thigh and flex knee, laterallly rotate leg
semitendinosus is...to biceps femoris medial
o of semi ischial tuberosity
i of semi medial aspect of upper tibial shaft
a of semi extend thin and flex knee, medially rotates leg
semimembranosus is ...to semitendinosus deep
o of semimem ischial tuberosity
i of semimem medial condyle of tibia
a of semimem extends thigh and flexes knee, medially rotates leg
tibialis anterior origin lateral condyle of tibial shaft
i of tibialis ant medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal
a of tibialis ant prime mover of dorsiflexion and invert foot
extensor digi (foot)is unipennate
o of ext. digi(foot) lateral condyle of tibia and shaft of fibula
i of ext. digi foot middle/distal phalanges of digits 2-5
a of ext digi foot prime mover of toe extension and also dorsiflexes foot
fibularis longus is also called peroneus
peroneus origin tertius distal anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane
i of peroneus tertius 5th metatarsal
a of peroneus tertius dorsiflexes and everts foot
extensor hallucis longus o anteromedial fibula shaft
i of extensor hallucis longus distal pahlanx of great toe
a of ext. hall extend great toe and dorsiflexes at ankle
fibularis longus (peroneus) origin head of fibula
i of fib longus 1st metatarsal and medial cuneiform
a of fib longus plantar flexes and everts foot
gastrocnemius origin by 2 heads from medial and lateral condyles of femur
i of gastrocnemius calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
a of gastro plantar flex foot and flex knee
soleus origin superior tibia, fibula and interosseous membrane
soleus insertion same as gastro
a of soleus plantar flexes foot
plantaris origin back of femur
i of plantaris calcaneal tendon
a of plataris knee flexion and plantar flexion of foot
popliteus origin lateral condyle of femur and lateral meniscus of knee
i of popliteus tibia
a of popliteus flexes and rotates leg medially to unlock knee
flexor digi longus foot origin extensive origin on posterior tibia
i of flex digi foot distal phalanges of toes 2-5
flexor hall origin middle shaft of fibula and interosseous membrane
i of flex hall distal phalanx of great toe
a of flex hall plantar flexion and inversion, flexes hallux (pushoff while walking)
tibialis posterior originates interosseous membrane and shafts of tibia and fibula
i of tib posterior navicular, cuneiforms, cuboid, 2-4th metatarsals
Created by: handrzej