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A and P chapter-8

Abduction Moving away from the midline of the body
Actin Contractile protein found in the myofilaments of skeleton muscle
Adduction Moving toward the midline of the body
All or None When stimulated, a muscle fiber will contract fully or not at all
Antagonists Those having opposing actions
Biceps Brachii The primary flexor of the arm
Bursa Small, cushion like sacs that are found between moving body parts to make it easier to move
Deltoid Having a triangular shape
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Form of muscular dystrophy inherited on the X chromosome and characterized by mild leg muscle weakness that progresses rapidly to include the shoulder muscles and eventually death
Endurance Training Continuous vigorous exercise requiring the body to increase its consumption of oxygen and develop the muscles' ability to sustain activity over a prolonged period of time
Extension Increasing the angle between two bones at a joint
Fatigue Loss of muscle power
Flexion the act of bending
Hypertrophy Increased size of a part caused by an increase in the size of its cells
Hypothermia Failure of thermoregulatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in a very cold environment
Insertion Attachment of muscle to the bone that it moves when contraction occurs
Intercalated Disks Connections that form unique dark bands between cardiac muscle fibers
Isometric Contraction Type of muscle contraction in which muscle does not shorten
Isotonic Contraction Type of muscle contraction that maintains uniform tension or pressure
Masseter Largest muscle of the cheek
Mastication Chewing
Motor Neuron Transmits nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glandular epithelial tissues
Muscle Fiber The specialized contractile cells of muscle tissue that are grouped together and arranged in a highly organized way
Muscular Dystrophy A group of muscle disorders characterized by atrophy of skeletal muscle without nerve involvement
Myasthenia Gravis Autoimmune muscle disorder characterized by progressive weakness and chronic fatigue
Myosin Contractile protein found in the thick myofilaments of skeletal muscle
Neuromuscular Junction The point of contact between the nerve endings and muscle fibers
Origin The attachment of a muscle to a bone which does not move when contraction occurs
Oxygen Debt Continued increased metabolism that occurs in a cell to remove excess lactic acid that resulted from exercise
Pectoralis Major Major flexor of the upper arm
Posture Position of the body
Prime Mover The muscle responsible for producing a particular movement
Rotation Movement around a longitudinal axis
Sarcomere Contractile unit of muscle; length of a myofibril between two Z bands
Sliding Filament Model Concept in muscle physiology describing the contraction of a muscle fiber in terms of the sliding of microscopic protein filaments past each other within the myofibrils in a manner that shortens the myofibrils and thus the entire muscle
Sprain An acute injury to soft tissues surrounding a joint, including muscle, tendon, and/or ligament
Strain Injury involving any component of the “musculotendinous unit”
Strength Training Contracting muscles against resistance to enhance muscle hypertrophy
Synergists Muscle that assists a prime mover
Tendon Sheaths Tube-shaped structure lined with synovial membrane that encloses certain tendons
Tendons Bands or cords of fibrous connective tissue that attach a muscle to a bone or other structure
Tetanus Sustained muscular contraction
Threshold Stimulus Minimal level of stimulation required to cause a muscle fiber to contract
Tonic Contraction Special type of skeletal muscle contraction used to maintain posture
Trapezius Triangular muscle in the back that elevates the shoulder and extends the head backwards
Triceps Brachii Extensor of the elbow
Twitch A quick, jerky response to a single stimulus
Zygomaticus The corners of the mouth and lips
Paralysis Loss of the power of motion, especially voluntary motion
Created by: Akile6



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