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# Research Methods1

### Stack #86981

Bias Distortion of data by experimenter, instrumentation, participants or procedures.
Blinding Experimenter in contact w/ subjects ignorant of participants category and/or partcipant is ignorant of category.
Cohort Group of individuals moving through some process as a group.
Dependent variable Data mesured in research study.
Randomization Choosing group in such a manner that the participant has an equal chance of being in either group.
Reliability Stability or repeatability.
Test-retest reliability the stability of a test determined by administering the test, waiting an interval and re-administering the test and correlation test results.
Validity Relates to a test measuring what it has been designed to measure.
Type 1 error Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true; claiming the effect exists when it does not.
Type 2 error Accepting the null hypothesis when it is not true
Threats to Internal Validity Instrumentation, History, mortality, maturation
Threats to External Validity Interaction of history, Hawthorne effect, multiple treatment interference
Parametric assumptions based on mean; powerful
Nonparametric based on median; less powerful & performed second
Anova deals w/ multiple groups
Ancova deals w/ nuisance variables impact dependent variables
Simple random sampling Each individual is randomly assigned to a group; purest form
Stratified random sampling used when characteristics of a population exhibit established proportions
Cluster sampling gives everyone within a population an equal chance of being chosen for the study; subject to sampling error
Consistency if two explanatory statements are contradictory, then one must be false
Confirmation once an explanatory statement is made, other events can also be explained;One unsuccessful prediction and the statement is disproved.
Controlled Observation changing in variable A produces a change in variable B
Generality findings must be able to explain more than the specific items/subjects being studied
Central Tendency mode, mean (prefered measure), median
Variability Sd, variance, correlation
Wilcoxon signed rank test data is multidirectional
Wilcoxon Ranked Sum Test equivalent to the Student t- test
Kruskal-Wallis Test equivalent to the one-way analysis of variance
Created by: Allpurpose

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