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HA Ch. 10

The Muscular System II: Major Muscles of the Axial Skeleton

muscles of the scalp epicranius
epicranius is made up of the galea aponeurotica, frontalis, occipitalis
galea aponeurotica is a bipartite muscle consisting of 2 muscles connected by a cranial aponeurosis
the alternate actions of the two galea aponeurotica muscles pull the scalp forward and backward
frontalis muscle (frontal belly) covers the forehead and dome of skull
frontalis muscle has no bony attachments
origin of the frontalis galea aponeurotica
insertion of frontalis skin of eyebrows/root of nose
action of frontalis pulls scalp forward and raises eyebrows
occipitalis (occipital belly) overlies the posterior occiput
origin of occipitalis occipital/temporal bones
insertion of occipitalis galea aponeurotica
action of occipitalis pulls scalp posteriorly
orbicularis oculi thin, flat sphincter muscles of the eyelid and surrounds orbits
origin of orbicularis oculi frontal/maxilla bones of medial orbits
insertion of orbicularis oculi skin of eyelids
action of orbicularis oculi closes eyelids and protects eyes from intense light and injury (blinking/squinting/draws eyebrows inferiorly)
zygomaticus: muscle pair extending diagonally from cheekbone to corner of mouth
origin of zygomaticus zygomatic bone
insertion of zygomaticus skin at corners of mouth
action of zygomaticus raises lateral corners of mouth upward (smiling muscle)
risorius: slender muscle that is inferior and lateral to zygomaticus
origin of risorius fascia of masseter muscle
insertion of risorius skin at angle of mouth
action of risorius draws corners of lip laterally (tense lips)
risorius is a the... synergist...zygomaticus muscle
orbicularis oris: complicated, multi... layered muscle of the lips with fibers that run in different directions, mostly circularly
origin of orb. oris fascia of facial muscles surrounding the mouth
insertion of orb. oris skin of lips
action of orb. oris close mouth, purses and protrudes lips, kissing/whistling
mentalis: one of the muscle pair forming a v-shaped muscle mass on chin
mentalis originates anterior mandible
mentalis insertion below the lower lip
mentalis action protudes lower lip/wrinkles chin
buccinator: thin horizontal cheek muscle, deep to the masseter
origin of buccinator maxilla and mandible near molars
insertion of buccinator orbicularis oris
action of buccinator compresses cheek and draws corner of mouth laterally (holds food between teeth during chewing)
buccinator is well developed in nursing babies
masseter: powerful muscle that covers the lateral aspect of the mandibular ramus
origin of masseter zygomatic arch and zygomatic bone
insertion of the masseter angle and ramus of mandible
action of masseter closes mouth and elevates mandible
temporalis: fan-shaped muscle that covers the temporal, frontal, and parietal bones
origin of temporalis temporal fossa
insertion of temporalis coronoid process and ramus of mandible
action of temporalis closes mouth, retracts mandible, maintains position of mandible at rest
muscles of the anterior neckand throat are for swallowing and speaking
the muscles of the neck are divided into the anterior and posterior triangles by the sternocleidomastoid muscle
the anterior triangle is divided into the suprahyoid muscle and the infrahyoid muscle
suprahyoid muscles are muscles that help form the...anchor the...elevate the...and move the...during swallowing; lies superior to the hyoid bone floor of the oral cavity...tongue...hyoid...larynx
digastric: consists of 2 bellies united by an intermediate tendon forming a v shape under the chin
origin of digastric lower margin of mandible and mastoid process of temporal bone
insertion of digastric hyoid bone
action of digastric open mouth and depress mandible
infrahyoid muscles are ...muscles that... straplike...depress the hyoid and larynx during swallowing and speaking
digastric: consists of 2 bellies united by an intermediate tendon forming a v shape under the chin
sternohyoid is the most medial muscle of the neck
sternohyoid is a thin, superficial muscle except inferiorly, where it is covered by the sternocleidomastoid muscle
sternohyoid originates on the manubrium and medial clavicle
insertion of sternohyoid hyoid
action of sternohyoid depress larynx and hyoid bone
origin of sternothyroid posterior surface of manubrium
insertion of sternothyroid thyroid cartilage of larynx
omohyoid: ...muscle with straplike...2 bellies united by an intermediate tendon; lateral to sternohyoid
sternothyroid lateral and deep to sternohyoid
origin of omohyoid superior surface of scapula
action of sternothyroid depresses thyroid cartilage; pulls larynx and hyoid bone inferiorly
muscles of the neck and vertebral column perform head movements and trunk extension
insertion of omohyoid hyoid bone
sternocleidomastoid: two.. headed muscle located deep to platysma; key muscular landmark in the neck
action of omohyoid depresses and retracts hyoid bone
origin of sternocleidomastoid manubrium of sternum and clavicle
muscles of the neck and vertebral column perform head movements and trunk extension
action of sternocleidmastoid flexes and laterally rotates the head
insertion of scalenes ribs 1 and 2
scalenes: located more laterally than anteriorly on the neck; deep to the platysma and sternocleidomastoid
origin of scalenes transverse process of cervical vertebrae
action of scalenes flexes and rotates neck, elevates ribs 1+2
erector spinae (intrinsic): ...mover of... prime...back extension
erector spinae consists of 3 muscles whose subset muscles are named according to their location on the vertebral column
3 muscles of erector spinae iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
origin of iliocostalis iliac crest, ribs (last 6-thoracis) and ribs 3-6 cervicis
insertion of iliocostalis angles of ribs, transverse process of c6-4
action of iliocostalis extend and laterally flex the vertebral column, maintain erect posture
iliocostalis group is the most lateral muscle group of erector spinae, extending from pelvis to neck
longissimus group is the intermediate tripartite muscle group which extends from lumbar to skull
origin of longissimus transverse process of lumbar through cervical vertebrae
insertion of longissimus transverse process of thoracic or cervical vertebrae and to ribs superior to origin as indicated by name
action of longissimus extend and laterally flex vertebral column (lateral flexion) and extends head and turns face toward same side
spinalis group is the most medial group; poorly defined
origin of spinalis spines of ubber lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae
insertion of spinalis spines of upper thoracic and cervical vertebrae
action of spinalis extend vertebral column
deep muscles of the thorax are for breathing
the thoracic muscles are very short
the thoracic muscles mostly run from one rib to the next
the thoracic muscles form three layers in the wall of the thorax
external intercostals are 11 pairs that lie between ribs, fibers run obliquely from each rib to rib below
origin of external intercostals inferior border of rib above
insertion of external intercostals superior border of rib below
action of external intercostals pull ribs twoard one another to ELEVATE rib cage
external intercostals are the ... of the... synergists of the diaphragm
internal intercostals are the 11 pairs that lie between ribs, fibers run deep to and at right angles to those of external intercostals (downward and posteriorly)
origin of internal intercostals superior border of rib below
insertion of internal intercostals inferior border of rib above
action of internal intercostals draws ribs together and depresses the rib cage
muscles of the abdominal wall controls trunk movements and compression of abdominal viscera
rectus abdominis is the ...muscle pair of the... wall medial...anterior...whose fibers extend vertically from pubis to rib cage
the rectus abdominis is ensheathed by aponeuroses of the lateral muscles of abdominal wall
rectus abdominis is segmented by 3 tendinous inscriptions
rectus abdominis extends medially to insert on the linea alba which is a tendinous raphe/seam that extends from sternum to pubic symphysis
rectus abdominis extends medially to insert on the linea alba which is a tendinous raphe/seam that extends from sternum to pubic symphysis
insertion of sternocleidomastoid mastoid process of temporal bone and nuchal line of occipital bone
origin of rectus abdominis pubic crest and pubic symphysis
insertion of rects abdominis xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7
action of rectus abdominis flex and rotate lumbar region of vertebral column; fix and depress ribs, stabilize pelivs during walking, increase intra-abdominal pressure, used in sit ups and curls
lateral abdominal walls are comprised of 3 layers of broad, flat muscle sheets
external oblique is the largest of the 3 layers and the most superficial; fibers run inferiorly and medially
the aponeurosis of the external oblique turns under inferiorly, forming the inguinal ligament
origin of external oblique ribs 5-12
insertion of external oblique linea alba, iliac crest, pubis
action of external oblique flex vertebral column and compress abdominal wall; aid muscles of the back in TRUNK ROTATION and LATERAL FLEXION
internal oblique: most fibers run superiorly and medially
origin of internal oblique lumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament
insertion of internal oblique linea alba and ribs 10-12
action of internal oblique same as ext. obl.
transversus abdominis is the most deep muscle layer of abdominal wall, fibers run horizontally
origin or transversus abdominis inguinal ligament, iliac crest, lumbar fascia, cartilages of ribs 7-12
insertion of transversus abdominis linea alba, crest of pubis
action of transversus abdominis compress abdominal contents and laterally rotates trunk
Created by: handrzej



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