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A&P Exam #2

Chapters 19,20,21

The growth of new blood vessels. Vital process in the fetus and in postnatal growth. Angiogenesis
Malignant tumors secrete proteins called ________ that stimulate blood vessel growth to nature the tumor cells. Tumor angiogenesis factors (TAFs)
forces involved in circulating blood Hemodynamics
________ form a closed system that carry blood away from the heart, transport it to the tissues of the body, and then return it to the heart. Blood vessels
Carry blood away from the heart to the tissues. Arteries
Are small arteries that supply capillaries. Arterioles
Are the site of exchange between the blood and tissues. Capillaries
Connect blood from capillaries and return blood to larger veins. Venules
Take blood from the tissues back to the heart. Veins
Are small blood vessels that supply blood to the cells of the walls of large arteries and veins. Vaso vasorum
The wall of an artery have three major layers Tunica interna, Tunica media, Tunica externa
Simple squamous epithelium called endothelium basement membrane internal elastic lamina Tunica interna (intima)
circular smooth muscle & elastic fibers Tunica media
elastic & collagen fibers Tunica externa
The functional properties of arteries are ______ and _______. elasticity; contractility
allows arteries to receive blood under great pressure from the contraction of the ventricles and to send it on through the system Elasticity
allows arteries to increase or decrease lumen size. This helps propel blood forward and to limit bleeding from wounds. Contractility
Vascular smooth muscle is innervated by _________. sympathetic nervous system
increase in sympathetic stimulation causes muscle contraction. decreases diameter of vessel Vasoconstriction
injury to artery or arteriole causes muscle contraction reducing blood loss Vasospasm
decrease in stimulation or presence of certain chemicals causes vasodilation. increases diameter of vessel nitric oxide, K+, H+ and lactic acid cause vasodilation relaxation of smooth muscle layer
Large arteries with more elastic fibers and less smooth muscle are called _______ and are able to receive blood under pressure and propel it onward. Function as a pressure reservoir. elastic arteries
Elastic Arteries are also called ______ because they conduct blood from the heart to medium sized muscular arteries. conducting arteries
Medium-sized arteries with more muscle than elastic fibers in tunica media.These arteries are capable of greater vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust rate of flow. Walls are relatively thick. Muscular Arteries
_____ are very small, almost microscopic, arteries that deliver blood to capillaries. The greatest resistance to blood flow. Arterioles
Through vasoconstriction and vasodilation arterioles assume a key role in regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries and in __________. altering arterial blood pressure
Microscopic vessels that connect arterioles to venules. Found near every cell in the body but more extensive in highly active tissue. Function is exchange of nutrients & wastes between blood and tissue fluid Microcirculation
Capillary walls are composed of only a ______ of cells and a _______. single layer; basement membrane.
_____form branches into capillary bed. Can bypass capillary bed, precapillary sphincters close & blood flows out of bed in thoroughfare channel. Metarterioles
_______ is intermittent contraction & relaxation of sphincters that allow filling of capillary bed 5- 10 times/minute vasomotion
Types of capillaries Continuous capillaries, Fenestrated capillaries, Sinusoids
Why are muscular arteries called distributing arteries? because they direct blood flow to specific areas
Intercellular clefts are gaps between adjacent cells. Found in skeletal & smooth muscle, connective tissue and lungs Continuous capillaries
Plasma membranes have many holes. Found in kidneys, small intestine, choroid plexuses, ciliary process & endocrine glands Fenestrated capillaries
Very large fenestrations. Incomplete basement membrane ␣ found in liver, bone marrow, spleen, anterior pituitary, & parathyroid gland Sinusoids
Small veins collecting blood from capillaries. Tunica media contains only a few smooth muscle cells & scattered fibroblasts Venules
Consist of the same three tunics as arteries but have a thinner tunica interna and media and a thicker tunica externa. Less elastic tissue and smooth muscle (thinner-walled than arteries). Have valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Major volume reserv Veins
______ are veins with very thin walls with no smooth muscle to alter their diameters. Examples are the brain’s superior sagittal sinus and the coronary sinus of the heart. Vascular (venous) sinuses
Twisted, dilated superficial veins. Caused by leaky venous valves. Allow backflow and pooling of blood Varicose Veins
The most common sites for varicose veins are in the…. esophagus, superficial veins of the lower limbs, and veins in the anal canal (hemorrhoids). Deeper veins are not usually susceptible because of support of surrounding muscles
Union of 2 or more arteries supplying the same body region. Blockage of only one pathway has less of effect because flow comes via the other artery. Circle of willis underneath brain and coronary circulation of heart. Anastomoses
Alternate route of blood flow through an anastomosis is known as collateral circulation
Generally, How much of blood volume at rest is in systemic veins and venules? 60%
increased muscular activity produces venoconstriction
causes venoconstriction to help maintain blood pressure Hemorrhage
Movement of materials in & out of a capillary by three methods Diffusion, Transcytosis, Bulk flow
passage of material across endothelium in tiny vesicles by endocytosis and exocytosis Transcytosis
is the volume of blood that flows through any tissue in a given period of time Blood flow
Total blood flow is cardiac output. Cardiac output (CO) = heart rate (HR) X stroke volume (SV)
How the total blood flow becomes distributed into circulatory routes depends on two more factors. 1.Pressure difference that drives the blood flow 2.The resistance to blood flow in specific blood vessels.
pressure gradients drive the blood flow. Velocity of blood flow, volume of blood flow, blood pressure Resistance to flow and venous return Factors affecting circulation
Pressure exerted by blood on walls of a vessel. If heart rate increases cardiac output, BP rises. Blood pressure
Pressure falls steadily in ____ with distance from left ventricle. systemic circulation
Water retention increases _____ Blood pressure
Blood pressure drops if…….. decrease in blood volume is over 10%,
Caused by friction between blood and the walls of vessels Resistance
The factors that influence resistance are? size of blood vessel lumen, blood viscosity and total vessel length
smaller vessels offer more resistance to blood flow Cause moment to moment fluctuations in pressure Size of lumen
Ratio of red blood cells to plasma volume. Increases in viscosity increase resistance. Such as dehydration or polycythemia Blood viscosity (thickness)
The longer the vessel, the greater the resistance to flow 200 miles of blood vessels for every pound of fat obesity causes high blood pressure total blood vessel length
Volume of blood flowing back to the heart from the systemic veins. Venous Return
An electrical event in a cell that leads to the mechanical event (contraction) action potential or impluse
Physiology of contraction Depolarization > Plateau > Repolarization
Depolarization excitation spreads between adjacent cells through gap junctions in the intercalated disks
Plateau slow Ca+2 channels open, let Ca +2 enter from outside cell and from storage in sarcoplasmic reticulum, while K+ channels close – Ca +2 binds to troponin to allow for actin-myosin cross- bridge formation & tension development
Repolarization Ca+2 channels close and K+ channels open & -90mv is restored as potassium leaves the cell
ATP production in cardiac muscle is caused by Aerobic cellular respiration / creatine phosphate
What is an EKG action potentials of all active cells detected and recorded
EKG broken into 3 visible waves : P wave, QRS complex, T wave
P wave Atrial depolarization - spread of impluse from SA node over atria
QRS complex ventricular depolarization - spread of impluse through ventricles
T wave ventricular repolarization
Cardiac cycle consists of... Systole and Diastole of both atria then by ventricles
Auscultation the act of listening to sounds within the body
Cardiac output The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute. SV x HR = CO
Factors that effect Stroke Volume : (3) Preload, Contractility, Afterload
Preload (Frank-Starling Law) The more the muscle is stretched there is a greater force of contraction
Contractility Autonomic nerves, homrones, Ca2+ K+ levels
Afterload amount of pressure caused by the blood in the vessel (high pressure = high afterload)
Which nervous system increases heart rate and force of contraction Sympathetic impulses
Which nervous systen decreases heart rate Parasympathetic impulses
Baroreceptors detect change in blood pressure and send info to the cardiovascular center
Myocardial infarction death of area of muscle from lack of O2 (heart attack)
Angina pectoris heart pain from ischemia of cardiac muscle
Coronary Artery Disease condition in which the heart muscle receives too much blood
Atherosclerosis a process in which smooth muscle cells proliferate and fatty substances, especially cholesterol and triglycerides (neutral fats), accumulate in the walls of the medium- sized and large arteries in response to certain stimuli, such as endothelial damage
Congestive heart failure a chronic or acute state that results when the heart is not capable of supplying the oxygen demands of the body
The two mechanisms that "pump" blood from the lower body back to the heart? Skeletal muscle pump and respiratory pump
What advantage does a slow rate in the capillaries offer? Exchanges occur. ex: gas exchange
Syncope "fainting" Refers to a sudden, temporary loss of consciousness followed by spontaneous recovery due to cerebral ischemia.
Role of cardiovascular center Medulla oblongata helps regulate heart rate and stroke volume
Innervation of the Heart Speed up the heart with sympathetic stimulation. Slow it down with parasympathetic stimulation (X). Sensory information from baroreceptors (IX).
Systemic Circulation left side heart to body & back to heart
Hepatic portal circulation capillaries of GI tract to capillaries in liver
Pulmonary circulation right-side heart to lungs & back to heart
Fetal circulation From fetal heart through umbilical cord to placenta & back
4 major divisions of aorta ascending aorta arch of aorta thoracic aorta abdominal aorta
Largest artery of the body Aorta
Ascending aorta 2 coronary arteries supply myocardium
arch of aorta branches to the arms & head brachiocephalic trunk branches into right common carotid and right subclavian
Thoracic aorta supplies branches to pericardium, esophagus, bronchi, diaphragm, intercostal & chest muscles, mammary gland, skin, vertebrae and spinal cord
Veins of the Systemic Circulation Drain blood from entire body & return it to right side of heart Deep veins parallel the arteries in the region
Major systemic veins superior vena cava drains the head and upper extremities inferior vena cava drains the abdomen, pelvis & lower limbs coronary sinus is large vein draining the heart muscle back into the heart
What are the lymphatic system functions? Drain interstitial fluid, Transport dietary fats, carryout specific immune responses
Lymphatic vessels begin as blind-ended __________ in tissue spaces between cells. lymph capillaries
Interstitial fluid drains into lymphatic capillaries, thus forming.. lymph
Lymph capillaries merge to form larger vessels, called _______, which convey lymph into and out of structures called _______. lymphatic vessels; lymph nodes
ability to fight a specific pathogen specific resistance
innate defenses Nonspecific resistance
consists of a fluid called lymph flowing within lymphatic vessels, several structures and organs that contain lymphatic tissue Lymphatic system
located within lymphatic vessels and lymphatic tissue. lymph
found between cells interstitial fluid
begin as blind-ended tubes found in spaces between cells lymphatic capillaries
These capillaries come together to form Lymphatic vessels
Lymph flows through lymph nodes towards the…. heart
attach endothelial cells to surround tissue. Anchoring filaments
A lymphatic capillary in the villi of the small intestine are called….. function to transport digested fats from the small intestine into blood. lacteals
Found throughout the body except in avascular tissue. Structure allows tissue fluid in but not out lymphatic capillaries
Lymph passes from lymphatic ___ into lymphatic ____ and then through lymph ______. capillaries; vessels; nodes
Lymphatic vessels exit lymph nodes in a particular region of the body, they unite to form Lymph trunks
Which trunk drain lymph from the lower limbs, the wall and viscera of the pelvis, the kidneys, the adrenal glands, and the abdominal wall. Lumbar trunks
Which trunk drains lymph from the stomach, intestines, pancreas, spleen, and part of the liver intestinal trunk
Which trunk drain lymph from the thoracic wall, lung, and heart Bronchomediastinal trunks
Which trunk drain the upper limbs Subclavian trunks
Which trunk drain the head and neck jugular trunks
Lymph passes from lymph trunks into two main channels: What are the channels? The thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct) and The right lymphatic duct
The thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct) begins as a dilation called the …. And s the main collecting duct of the lymphatic system. cisterna chyli
Which duct receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, and chest, the left upper extremity, and the entire body below the ribs. Drains lymph into venous blood via the left subclavian vein. left lymphatic duct
which duct receives lumph from the upper right side of the body right lymphatic duct
Lymph flows as a result of the action of skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements.
Bean-shaped organs, up to 1 inch long, located along lymphatic vessels lymph nodes
Parenchyma is divided into 2 regions: cortex and medulla
the site of proliferation of plasma cells (a type of B cell) and T cells. lymph nodes
Lymph enters nodes through _____ lymphatic vessels, is filtered to remove damaged cells and microorganisms, and exits through ____ lymphatic vessels. afferent; efferent
2 lobed organ located in mediastinum, superior & anterior to the great vessels of the heart. The organ has a capsule and trabeculae that divide the organ into lobules thymus gland
tightly packed lymphocytes (T cells) & macrophages Cortex (thymus Gland)
reticular epithelial cells produces thymic hormones Medulla (thymus gland)
Lymphatic organs and tissues are widely distributed throughout the body and classified into two groups Primary lymphatic organs and Secondary lymphatic organs & tissues
Which lymphatic organ provide environment for lymphoid stem cells to divide & mature into B and T lymphocytes Primary
The site where most immune responses occur Secondary lymphatic organs and tissues
What is the flow of Lymph Lymph starts as plasma in capillaries, the fluid goes into interstitial spaces and then to lymph capillaries to lymphatic vessels to lymph trunks to the thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct to the subclavian veins
what promotes the flow of lymphatic fluid respiratory and muscular pumps
Lymphatic vessels empty into ….. subclavian veins
What region has lymphatic nodules with germinal centers containing dendritic cells and B cells which proliferate into antibody-secreting plasma cells cortex (lymph nodes)
What region contains B cells & plasma cells in medullary cords medulla (lymph nodes)
The site where pre-T cells that migrate from red marrow mature thymus
Size of Lymph nodes
5 inch organ between stomach & diaphragm Spleen
What does Stroma consists of? capsule, trabeculae, fibers & fibroblasts
What does the Parenchyma in spleen consists of? white pulp and red pulp
Lymphatic tissue around branches of splenic artery White pulp is made up of…..
venous sinuses filled with blood & splenic tissue consisting of RBCs, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes. Red pulp is made up of…..
the production of blood cells during the second trimester of pregnancy is involved in the ... Red pulp
The spleen stores _____ in the red pulp. blood platelets
Lymphatic Nodules Concentrations of lymphatic tissue not surrounded by a capsule scattered throughout connective tissue of mucous membranes (MALT)
Nonspecific resistance a wide variety of body responses against a wide range of pathogens and their toxins.
mechanical barriers, nonspecific phagocytosis, chemical defenses nonspecific defenses
Mechanical protection the intact epidermis layer of the skin mucous membranes, the lacrimal apparatus, saliva, mucus, cilia, the epiglottis, and the flow of urine
Pathogen disease producing organisms (disruption in homeostasis)
The second line of defense involves • internal antimicrobial proteins, • phagocytic and natural killer cells, • inflammation, and • fever.
Body cells infected with viruses produce proteins called interferons (IFNs)
Lymph nodes flow in... one direction
Created by: nenatweet24