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Chp. 5 Integumentary

Chapter 5 integumentary system

the integumentary system consists of _____, it's accessory structures and _________ tissue. skin, subcutaneous
because the integumentary system has many different tissues, it makes it an ______. organ
what are the 4 functions of the integumentary system? protection (including physical and pathogenic), storage, insulation and cooling (sweat)
the 2 layers of skin are the _______ and the ______. epidermis, dermis
what layers is the epidermis? the outer layer
the epidermis is made of stratified squamous __________ __________ tissue. keratinizing epithelial
the cells that are most abundant are called ___________. keratinocytes
the two most important layers of the epidermis are the ______________ layer which is the stratum germinativum and the outermost layer which is the stratum _________. innermost, corneum
what is another name for the stratum germinativum? stratum basale
the innermost layer is the layer in which _______ takes place. mitosis
new cells are always being produced and are producing the protein ______. keratin
________ cells are scattered among the keratinocytes of the stratum germinativum. merkel
the living ___________ are able to synthesize antimicrobial peptides called _________. keratinocytes, defensins
keratinocytes are secreted during ___________. inflammation
the stratum corneum is the _____ outermost layer. hard/horny
the stratum _______ is waterproof. corneum
the stratum corneum is a barrier to _____________ and most _________. microorganisms, chemicals
what are langerhans cells? they phagocytize foreign material
where do langerhans cells originate in _____ ________. bone marrow
langerhans cells migrate to _______ _______ after ingesting pathogens and present it to lymphocytes. lymph nodes
________ produce pigment protein melanin. melanocytes
melanocytes makes ______, ______ and _______ darker. skin, hair and eyes
melanin increases with __ ______. UV light
the dermis is the ______ layer. inner
collagen and _____ make the dermis strong and _____. elastin, elastic
the ________ layer is an uneven junction between the dermis and the epidermis. papillary
the papillary layer has an _________ blood supply. abundant
________ follicles are over the entire body. hair
hair follicles are made up of __________ tissue. epidermal
attached to each hair follicle is a small, smooth muscle called _________. pilomotor
when stimulated by cold or emotions, the pilomotor muscles _____ the hair follicles ______. pull, upright
what are found on the ends of fingers and toes? nail follicles
_____ takes place in the nail root at the base of the nail. mitosis
nails _____ the ends of fingers and toes. protect
most sensory ________ for the cutaneous senses are gound in the dermis. receptors
free nerve endings are receptors for _____, _____ and ______. heat, cold and pain
_____________ nerve endings are for touch and pressure. encapsulated
the ___________ of an area of the skin is determined by how many receptors are present. sensitivity
glands are made of _________ tissue. epithelial
sebaceous ducts open into ________ __________ or directly on to skin. this can cause greasy hair or skin. hair follicle
sebaceous glands secrete ________. sebum
what is sebum? an oily lipid (fat)
sebum inhibits _________. bacteria
sebum can also act as a ___________ to prevent breaks in the skin. moisturizer
there are several sebaceous glands are the ______ and mouth. nose
______ is an infection of the sebaceous glands and clogged ducts (pores). acne
blackheads are _______ sebum. oxidized
________ glands are in the dermis of the ear canal. ceruminous
ceruminous glands secrete ________to make ear ___. cerumin, wax
_____________ of cerumin can cause pain or loss of hearing. overproduction
cerumin keeps the outer surface of the eardrum pliable and prevents _______. drying
there are two types of sweat glands. What are they? apocrine glands and eccrine glands
apocrine glands are most _____ in the axillae and the ______ areas. numerous, genital
apocrine glands are most active in stressful and _______ situations. emotional
unpleasant odors of these areas are caused by ___________ of the apocrine secretions causing bacteria to metabolize the chemicals in sweat. accumulations
eccrine glands are found all over the ______. body
eccrine glands are most numerous on the _______, upper ____, palms and _____. forehead, lip, soles
the duct of the coiled tube in the eccrine glands opens up on the skin into a _____. pore
the sweat produced in eccrine glands helps ______ normal body ________. maintain, temperature
loss of too much body water in sweat can lead to ___________. dehydration
sodium chloride is lost in sweat, as well as small amount of ____. urea
arterioles are small _______. arteries
arterioles also aid in _____________ regulation. temperature
____________ increases blood flow to the surface which causes "flushing/blushing" vasodilation
vasoconstriction _________ blood flow to surface causing someone to go "pale" decreases
arterioles are regulated by the CNS and ________ as in the "fight or flight" response. hormones
_________ (epinephrine) released causes vasoconstriction in skin and redirects blood to more vital organs such as the muscles. adrenalin
decubitus ulcers is when ___________ pressure causes lack of blood supply and leads to tissue death. this can cause bed sores. prolonged
superficial fascia or hypodermis are other names for _____________ tissue. subcutaneous
subcutaneous tissue is __________ ___________ membranes. connective tissue
what are the three functions of subcutaneous tissue? connects skin to muscle, provides immunity form WBC's and mast cells and stores fat.
fat is used for energy storage, _______ and ________. cushion, insulation
_____ cells are produced in the red bone marrow and found in connective tissue throughout the body. mast
mast cells produce ________, ___________ and other chemicals that help bring about inflammation. histamine, leukotrienes
____________ are specialized to store fat. adipocytes
when cellular function slows (aging), it causes decreased ___________ activity which is fewer collagen and elastin fibers. fibroblastic
in aging, glands become less active causing _______ and ________ temperature regulation. dryness, decreased
in aging, _________ die causing lighter skin and gray hair. melanocytes
How many degrees of burns are there? 3
what is a first degree burn? redness of the epidermis
a 2nd degree burn affects the ________ and the _______ causing it to blister. dermis, epidermis
3rd degree burns affect what layers of the skin? epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous
skin cancer is a DNA ________. mutation
warts are ___________ of epidermis caused by a virus. overgrowth
_______ is atopic dermatitis causing itchy, inflamed skin. eczema
a marked loss of hair is called ________ and is often genetically regulated. alopecia
Created by: long2010