Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

206 Bones

bones and ossicification

Bone Functions (6) Support; protection; Levers; movements; mineral storage; hemopoiesis
Hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate + calcium hydroxide; crystal; ability to incorporate other minerals (CaCO3, ion K+, Mg+, F+)
Calcium phosphate 2/3 weight of bone; crystals are strong and can be compressed but not twisted or bent or they will break; use for bones, blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve impulses
Collagen fibers tough & flexible; can twist/bend and they wont break but cant compress them or they will bend out of the way
Osteoprogentor cells undifferentiated cells that become osteoblasts; ONLY mitotic bone cells; found in periosteum & endosteum
Periosteum lines other surface of all bones; nutrition, protection, growth, repair, attachment to muscle; dense irregular CT
Endosteum lines the marrow cavity, Havarian & Volkman's canals
Osteoblast cells form true bone cells & bone matrix (hydroxyapatite & collagen fibers)
Osteocytes true bone cells; make up 2% of bone
osteoclast cells tear down bone; develop from circulating monocytes (WBCS)
Giant Cells secrete lactic acid which leaches minerals from bones and destroys them
Osteoprosis osteoclast activity predominates; osteoblast activity is not enough; females over 50
osteogensis production of new bone
osteolysis tearing down of bone
Outer layer peuriosteum fibrous, tough, protective; CT, BVs, nerves, lymphatic vessels
Inner layer peuriosteum osteogenic layer; bone cells are made; elastic fibers; BVs, food & O2 & CO2
Nutritive foramen BVs pass through; 10% of cardiac output at anytime
Compact Bone microstructure; dense/heavy, few spaces, thicker in diaphysis than epiphysis; stress resistant; support, protection; many osteon close together
Canaliculi tiny canals filled with cytoplasmic extensions; osteocytes link BV in the Havarian canal with individual bone cells
concentric circles each circle is called osteon
Spongy Bone "Cancellus Bone"; lighter; lots of spaces; found under a layer of compact bone in epipysis; lines Medullary cavity, Haverian and volkmans canal
lacuna "pool" around osteocyte; contains fluid (derived from blood-like plasma) that keeps the cell alive
Traleulae struts of bone that form according to stress placed on bone; mesh work; contains non-circular lamella
Red marrow in epiphysis & flat bones; blood forming tissues (RBCs)
Yellow marrow in diaphysis; fatty NOT blood forming; adipose tissue; store minerals
epiphysial plate region of the metaphysis; after growth stops it forms into the epiphysial line that gets lighter when older; cartilage cells are laid down on epiphysical side and changes to bone on diaphysis side
zone of reserve cartilage attaches epiphysical to epiphysis; reacting cells
zone of proliferating cartilage "stacks of coins"; new chondrocytes
zone of hypertrophic cartilage cartilage cells are native large
zone of calcified matrix dead cells forming new matrix; some cells become osteocytes from osteoblast
Intermembraneous ossification dermal ossification; starts w/ fibrous membrane to spongy/compact bone; deepest layer of dermis; hypertopic bone formation-frontal/pareital bones, mandible, clavical, patella; mesenchyme-osteoblasts-collagen matrix-mineralization-mult ossificiations sites
endochondial ossification starts w/ hyaline cartilage model; longer process; appositional (new cartilage outside) & interstial (cartilage increases from inside) growth; forms bone collar; primary & secondary sites of ossifications
bone fracture healing internal callus(stitches & reabsorbs bones)-external callus(makes area bigger/true bone-cartilage to bone- linked by trabeculeum-gradually remolded to orignal
long bones any bone with L>W; slightly curved ant to post; spongy/compact bone in epiphysis/diaphysis
short bones roughly cubed shaped L=W; spongy inside/compact outside; wrist/ankle
flat bones long, narrow; ribs, cranial bones (parietal, frontal, temporal), sternum, scapula; parallel areas of compact with spongy in between
irregular bones that dont fit anywhere else; face bones, vertebrae; vary in amounts of spongy/compact bone
wormian bone sutural bones; place where cranial bones articulate (touch)
sesamoid bones bones form in tendons under stress; patella, wrist?
axial skeleton 80 bones; ribs, sternum, skull, vertebrae
appendicular skeleton 126 bones; arms & legs
cranial bones (8) frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital
facial bones (14) 2 nasal bones, 2 maxilla, 2 zygotmatic, mandible, 2 lacrimal, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchea, vomer
fontenals "little fountain" "soft spots"; incomplete ossification of birth; anterior-between frontal & parietal closes 18-24 months; posterior-between parietal & occipital closes 2 months
Frontal Bone supercilary arches; supra orbital ridge (margin); glabella; frontal sinuses
Parietal Bone inside (ridge & valley hold nerves & BVs in position)
Temporal Bone zygomatic process of temporal bone arts. w/ temporal process of zygomatic bone to form zygomatic arch; external auditory meatus; mandibular fossa articulates w/ condylar process of mandible form TMJ; mastoid process-sinsuses; styloid process-tongue
Petrous Portion of Temporal Bone houses middle&inner ear; carotid foramen (taking blood to brain); juglar foramen
Sphenoid Bone arts. w/ all cranial bones; greater wings; optic foramen-2nd cranial nerve; sella turcica-pituitary gland; body-sphenoid sinus; foramen ovale-5th cranial nerve; pterygoid process-attachment for mandible&soft plate
ethmoid bone principle supporting structure of nasal cavity; crista galli(cocks limb) attach meninges(brain covering); cribiform plate-passage 1st cranial nerve; lateral mass-houses superior nasal conchae; perpendicular plate; middle nasal conchae-filter air
occipital bone foramen magnum; occipital condyle- arts w/ sup art process of atlas; occipital crest-stabilize node of vertebrae; sup & inf nuchal lines- arts w/ atlas & balances head; occipital protuberrence
Skull Sutures coronal-frontal & parietal; sagittal- parietial (top of head); lamboidal- occipital & parietal; squamoid-temporal & parietal
nasal bone bridge of nose; sup part of nasal structure
maxillae art. w/ all cranial bones except mandible; alveolar processes anchor teeth; L&R fuse early considered one bone; forms part of lateral wall of nasal cavity
palatine process form hard plate (roof of mouth) & part of lateral walls of nasal cavity & part of floor; "L" shaped bone forms part of hard palate
cleft palate failure of palatine process
paranasal cavity drain into nasal cavity; lined w/ mucous membrane; frontal (morning headaches); sphenoid (in body-pressure headache); ethmoid (in lateral masses-pain behind eyes); maxillary (upper teeth)
mastoid sinus do not open into nasal cavity
Eye Orbit Super Orbital Fissure; ethmoid; Greater & Lesser wings of sphenoid; lacrimal; zygomatic bone; frontal; maxillary
Mandible largest & strongest bone; only moveable bone in face; mandibular condyle articulates w. mandibular fossa of temporal bone; coronoid process-muscle attachment; angle; ramus; manibular foramen (dentists branches of 5th cranial nerve)
nasal septum perpindicular plate of ethmoid; vomar; septal cartilage; deviated septum (where bone & cartilage meet-causes post nasal drip infections)
Vertebral column approx 28 inches long; strong, flexible, movement ant, post, laterally; 7 cervical, 12 thoraic, 5 lumbar; 5 sacral (fused into 1 bone); 3-5 coccycal fused(male)/unfused (female); encloses & protects cord; supports head; attaches ribs & back muscles
vertebral foramen spinal cord
intervertebral foramen for exit of spinal nerves (inbetween vertebrae-laterally; posterior to disc& body, anterior to spinous process)
intervertebral discs fibrocartilage pads
spinal curves dissapate stress; maintain balance; absorb shock, protects from fracture; primary & secondary
primary curve mimic fetal curve; anteriorly concave (thoraic & sacral)
secondary curve opposite fetal curve; anteriorly convex; cervical (3-4 months holding head up) & lumbar (by 2 years for walking)
Created by: ham007



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards