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206 Bones

bones and ossicification

QuestionAnswer
Bone Functions (6) Support; protection; Levers; movements; mineral storage; hemopoiesis
Hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate + calcium hydroxide; crystal; ability to incorporate other minerals (CaCO3, ion K+, Mg+, F+)
Calcium phosphate 2/3 weight of bone; crystals are strong and can be compressed but not twisted or bent or they will break; use for bones, blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve impulses
Collagen fibers tough & flexible; can twist/bend and they wont break but cant compress them or they will bend out of the way
Osteoprogentor cells undifferentiated cells that become osteoblasts; ONLY mitotic bone cells; found in periosteum & endosteum
Periosteum lines other surface of all bones; nutrition, protection, growth, repair, attachment to muscle; dense irregular CT
Endosteum lines the marrow cavity, Havarian & Volkman's canals
Osteoblast cells form true bone cells & bone matrix (hydroxyapatite & collagen fibers)
Osteocytes true bone cells; make up 2% of bone
osteoclast cells tear down bone; develop from circulating monocytes (WBCS)
Giant Cells secrete lactic acid which leaches minerals from bones and destroys them
Osteoprosis osteoclast activity predominates; osteoblast activity is not enough; females over 50
osteogensis production of new bone
osteolysis tearing down of bone
Outer layer peuriosteum fibrous, tough, protective; CT, BVs, nerves, lymphatic vessels
Inner layer peuriosteum osteogenic layer; bone cells are made; elastic fibers; BVs, food & O2 & CO2
Nutritive foramen BVs pass through; 10% of cardiac output at anytime
Compact Bone microstructure; dense/heavy, few spaces, thicker in diaphysis than epiphysis; stress resistant; support, protection; many osteon close together
Canaliculi tiny canals filled with cytoplasmic extensions; osteocytes link BV in the Havarian canal with individual bone cells
concentric circles each circle is called osteon
Spongy Bone "Cancellus Bone"; lighter; lots of spaces; found under a layer of compact bone in epipysis; lines Medullary cavity, Haverian and volkmans canal
lacuna "pool" around osteocyte; contains fluid (derived from blood-like plasma) that keeps the cell alive
Traleulae struts of bone that form according to stress placed on bone; mesh work; contains non-circular lamella
Red marrow in epiphysis & flat bones; blood forming tissues (RBCs)
Yellow marrow in diaphysis; fatty NOT blood forming; adipose tissue; store minerals
epiphysial plate region of the metaphysis; after growth stops it forms into the epiphysial line that gets lighter when older; cartilage cells are laid down on epiphysical side and changes to bone on diaphysis side
zone of reserve cartilage attaches epiphysical to epiphysis; reacting cells
zone of proliferating cartilage "stacks of coins"; new chondrocytes
zone of hypertrophic cartilage cartilage cells are native large
zone of calcified matrix dead cells forming new matrix; some cells become osteocytes from osteoblast
Intermembraneous ossification dermal ossification; starts w/ fibrous membrane to spongy/compact bone; deepest layer of dermis; hypertopic bone formation-frontal/pareital bones, mandible, clavical, patella; mesenchyme-osteoblasts-collagen matrix-mineralization-mult ossificiations sites
endochondial ossification starts w/ hyaline cartilage model; longer process; appositional (new cartilage outside) & interstial (cartilage increases from inside) growth; forms bone collar; primary & secondary sites of ossifications
bone fracture healing internal callus(stitches & reabsorbs bones)-external callus(makes area bigger/true bone-cartilage to bone- linked by trabeculeum-gradually remolded to orignal
long bones any bone with L>W; slightly curved ant to post; spongy/compact bone in epiphysis/diaphysis
short bones roughly cubed shaped L=W; spongy inside/compact outside; wrist/ankle
flat bones long, narrow; ribs, cranial bones (parietal, frontal, temporal), sternum, scapula; parallel areas of compact with spongy in between
irregular bones that dont fit anywhere else; face bones, vertebrae; vary in amounts of spongy/compact bone
wormian bone sutural bones; place where cranial bones articulate (touch)
sesamoid bones bones form in tendons under stress; patella, wrist?
axial skeleton 80 bones; ribs, sternum, skull, vertebrae
appendicular skeleton 126 bones; arms & legs
cranial bones (8) frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital
facial bones (14) 2 nasal bones, 2 maxilla, 2 zygotmatic, mandible, 2 lacrimal, 2 palatine, 2 inferior nasal conchea, vomer
fontenals "little fountain" "soft spots"; incomplete ossification of birth; anterior-between frontal & parietal closes 18-24 months; posterior-between parietal & occipital closes 2 months
Frontal Bone supercilary arches; supra orbital ridge (margin); glabella; frontal sinuses
Parietal Bone inside (ridge & valley hold nerves & BVs in position)
Temporal Bone zygomatic process of temporal bone arts. w/ temporal process of zygomatic bone to form zygomatic arch; external auditory meatus; mandibular fossa articulates w/ condylar process of mandible form TMJ; mastoid process-sinsuses; styloid process-tongue
Petrous Portion of Temporal Bone houses middle&inner ear; carotid foramen (taking blood to brain); juglar foramen
Sphenoid Bone arts. w/ all cranial bones; greater wings; optic foramen-2nd cranial nerve; sella turcica-pituitary gland; body-sphenoid sinus; foramen ovale-5th cranial nerve; pterygoid process-attachment for mandible&soft plate
ethmoid bone principle supporting structure of nasal cavity; crista galli(cocks limb) attach meninges(brain covering); cribiform plate-passage 1st cranial nerve; lateral mass-houses superior nasal conchae; perpendicular plate; middle nasal conchae-filter air
occipital bone foramen magnum; occipital condyle- arts w/ sup art process of atlas; occipital crest-stabilize node of vertebrae; sup & inf nuchal lines- arts w/ atlas & balances head; occipital protuberrence
Skull Sutures coronal-frontal & parietal; sagittal- parietial (top of head); lamboidal- occipital & parietal; squamoid-temporal & parietal
nasal bone bridge of nose; sup part of nasal structure
maxillae art. w/ all cranial bones except mandible; alveolar processes anchor teeth; L&R fuse early considered one bone; forms part of lateral wall of nasal cavity
palatine process form hard plate (roof of mouth) & part of lateral walls of nasal cavity & part of floor; "L" shaped bone forms part of hard palate
cleft palate failure of palatine process
paranasal cavity drain into nasal cavity; lined w/ mucous membrane; frontal (morning headaches); sphenoid (in body-pressure headache); ethmoid (in lateral masses-pain behind eyes); maxillary (upper teeth)
mastoid sinus do not open into nasal cavity
Eye Orbit Super Orbital Fissure; ethmoid; Greater & Lesser wings of sphenoid; lacrimal; zygomatic bone; frontal; maxillary
Mandible largest & strongest bone; only moveable bone in face; mandibular condyle articulates w. mandibular fossa of temporal bone; coronoid process-muscle attachment; angle; ramus; manibular foramen (dentists branches of 5th cranial nerve)
nasal septum perpindicular plate of ethmoid; vomar; septal cartilage; deviated septum (where bone & cartilage meet-causes post nasal drip infections)
Vertebral column approx 28 inches long; strong, flexible, movement ant, post, laterally; 7 cervical, 12 thoraic, 5 lumbar; 5 sacral (fused into 1 bone); 3-5 coccycal fused(male)/unfused (female); encloses & protects cord; supports head; attaches ribs & back muscles
vertebral foramen spinal cord
intervertebral foramen for exit of spinal nerves (inbetween vertebrae-laterally; posterior to disc& body, anterior to spinous process)
intervertebral discs fibrocartilage pads
spinal curves dissapate stress; maintain balance; absorb shock, protects from fracture; primary & secondary
primary curve mimic fetal curve; anteriorly concave (thoraic & sacral)
secondary curve opposite fetal curve; anteriorly convex; cervical (3-4 months holding head up) & lumbar (by 2 years for walking)
Created by: ham007