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Chp. 7 muscles

Chapter 7 Muscular system

What are the three functions of the muscular system? movement, mobility and heat
the muscular system includes the _____ muscles. skeletal
all muscle cells are specialized for _________. contraction
when muscle cells contract, they _____ and _____ a bone to produce movement. shorten and pull
each skeletal muscle is made of __________ of individual muscles cells which can be called ________. thousands, myocytes
another name for myocytes is _______ _______. muscle fibers
muscles are anchored firmly to bones by ______. tendons
most tendons are rope-like, but some are _______. flat
a __________ is the name for a flat tendon. aponeurosis
tendons merge with the _____ that covers the muscle and with the periosteum which is the _________ ____________ tissue membrane that covers a bone. fascia, fibrous connective tissue
origin is the _________ attachment of the muscle. stationary
__________ is the more movable attachment of the muscle. insertion
the two general types of arrangements of the muscles are the _______ anatagonists and the cooperative _______. opposing, synergists
we use antagonistic muscles for muscles that have _______ functions. opposite
____ is to decrease the angle of a joint. flexion
extension is to ________ the angle of a joint. increase
_______ is laterally raising. abducting
adduction is the movement of a body toward the ______ of the body. midline
what are Range of Motion (ROM) exercises designed for? to stretch and contract the antagonistic muscles of a joint to preserve as much muscle function and joint mobility as possible.
synergistic muscles are those with the ____ function. same
a prime mover is the muscles responsible for the ______ action when a joint is moved. main
the ____ has specific roles in our muscles. brain
the ______ lobes initiate the signal to the muscle in the premotor and motor areas of the cortex. frontal
the cerebellum ________ the movements. coordinates
_______ of the muscle is sensed in the parietal lobes for conscious input. sensation
the _________ is also for subconscious input. cerebellum
muscle tone is slight _________ of muscles that is present _____ of the time. contraction, most
muscle fibers need the energy of __________ __________ (ATP) in order to contract. adenosine triphosphate
good muscle tone improves ________. coordination
thermogenesis is the ______ production from normal muscle metabolism. heat
thermogenesis is due to ________ reactions and _____. chemical, friction
there are two general types of muscle exercise. what are they? isotonic exercise and isometric exercise.
what is isotonic excercise? muscles contract and bring about movement
there are two kinds of isotonic contraction. what are they? concentric contraction and eccentric contraction
isometric exercises involve contraction __________ movement. without
another name for muscle sense is _____________. proprioception
muscle sense is the brains awareness of the position of the _____ and the ______. muscle, joint
within all muscles are __________ called stretch receptors. stretch
the general function of all sensory receptors is to _______ movement. detect
the secondary energy sources for muscle contraction are creatine phosphate and _________. glycogen
sometimes creatine can be converted to _______. creatonine
_______ is the most abundant energy source. glycogen
glycogen is broken down into glucose which goes through cellular _________. respiration
________ ________ is glucose + O2 - CO2 + H2O + ATP + heat cellular respiration
O2 sources are ________ and _________. hemoglobin and myoglobin
Hemoglobin carries O2 in the ______ (RBC's) blood
myoglobin carries O2 in the _______. muscle
myglobin makes the muscle ___ (color) red
oxygen ____ is when O2 need is greater than the supply. debt
_____ is the deficiency of O2. hypoxia
glucose is converted into lactic acid in _________ respiration. anaerobic
lactic acid is converted to pyruvic acid in the _______. liver
__________ ___________ _________ is breathing to supply the oxygen required by the liver to detoxify lactic acid. recovery oxygen intake
muscle fiber is a ________ structure. microscopic
_______ is the motor nerve ending at each muscle fiber junction. neuromuscular
there is one neuromuscluar per ______. fiber
the axon _______ is the enlarged tip of the motor neuron . terminal
________ is a chemical neurotransmitter released at neuromuscluar junctions. acetylcholine
the membrane of the muscle fiber is the _______ which contains receptor sites for acetylcholine. sarcolemma
cholinesterase is an _________. inactivator
the _______ is the space between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma. synapse
__________ are linear arrangements of sarcomeres within a muscle fiber myofibril
thick filaments are made mainly of the protein ______. myosin
titin is the protein in sarcomeres that ________ myosin filaments to the Z lines. anchors
troponin and __________ are inhibitory proteins that prevents contraction when relaxed/ tropomyosin
the _________ reticulum is the ER muscle of the cell. sarcoplasmic
the sarcoplasmic reticulum ______ calcium ions. stores
ACh causes _______ impulse in the sarcolemma. electrical
_____ filament mechanism is when actin filaments pull against myosin filaments. sliding
at rest, a sarcolemma is _________. polarized
sarcolemma depolarization is when ACh bonds to ACh _______. receptors
T ________ are channels that carry out the ction potential to the inner parts of the cell. tubules
sarcolemma _________ is resetting the action potential. repolarization
inversion is ________ the foot/ankle medially. tilting
_______ is tilting the foot/ankle laterally. eversion
supination is rotating the palm __. up
________ is rotating the palm down. pronation
___________ _________ is side bending. lateral flexion
internal rotation is rotating around a _______. joint
circumduction is moving in a circular motion without _________. rotation
________ is bringing a part toward the midline. retraction
protraction is bringing a part toward the midline or __________. posteriorly
_______ is decreasing angle of ankle joint. dorsiflexion
______ flexion is increasing angle of ankle joint. plantar
Created by: long2010



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