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byrnekara

Supreme Court Case Flashcards

QuestionAnswer
Discuss the significance of Marbury v. Madison (1803). This court case set up the precedent of judicial review, allowing the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional. This, in turn, strengthened the power of the judicial branch.
What important clause was established in McCulloch v. Maryland? This case established the supremacy clause, saying that the national government was supreme above the state governments. Thus, Maryland couldn't refuse to pay taxes to the national bank.
Describe the conclusion to the Gibbons v. Ogden case. This case also incorporated the supremacy clause. It also established the commerce clause, saying that Congress had sole authority to exercise interstate commerce.
Analyze the significance of Barron v. Baltimore (1833). This case ruled that the Bill of Rights (specifically 5th Amendment) did not protect individuals against state governments.
Discuss the outcome of Dred Scott v. Sandford (1856). This court decision got rid of the Missouri Compromise and basically stated that slavery could exist anywhere in the United States. Under the Constitution, slaves were not U.S. citizens.
Analyze the precedent set under Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). This case set up the "separate but equal" doctrine. The 14th Amendment was applied, and, for example, allowed whites and blacks to attend segregated schools legally.
What precedent did Schenck v. United States (1919) establish? Schenck urged draftees to protest the WWI draft peacefully; convicted of violating a federal law against encouraging disobedience of military orders. The Court ruled that such speech was not protected during wartime - "Clear and Present Danger."
What was the issue and result of Korematsu v. United States? During WWII, Presidential Executive Order 9066 allowed the exclusion of Japanese citizens from areas deemed critical to national defense. The Court upheld this decision.
Which case did Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) overturn? This case overturned Plessy v. Ferguson ("separate but equal"). It declared this precedent was inherently unequal.
Analyze the significance of Mapp v. Ohio (1961). In this case, police obtained evidence illegally without a search warrant. Thus, this evidence was excluded from trial in state courts. The exclusionary rule was established (4th Amendment).
Discuss the results of Buckley v. Valeo (1975). The Court arrived at 2 conclusions: first, placing limits on amount of money individuals could donate to candidates didn't violate the 1st Amendment, but limiting total expenditures that cadidates could spend did, because it inhibitied free expression.
Analyze the outcome of Bakke v. California (1978). This case declared that affirmative action was okay, but setting quotas was unconstitutional.
Describe the significance of Gideon v. Wainwright (1963). This case overturned Betts v. Brady (1942) and extended the right to council state cases. (incorporated 6th Amendment-right to council in felony cases).
What important precedent did Miranda v. Arizona establish (1996)? This case established that suspects must be informed of their constitutional rights before they are questioned by the police. Because Miranda wasn't informed of his rights, the evidence could not be used in court. ("Miranda Card"; 5th Amendment)
Analyze the significance of Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). The Court ruled that the Bill of Rights created "zones of privacy" even though "privacy" isn't directly stated in the Constitution.
Analyze the outcome of Roe v. Wade (1971). The Court ruled that a woman's right to abortion fell within the right to privacy (as stated in Griswold v. Connecticut) protected by the 14th Amendment. It was very controversial. It allowed women to terminate a pregnancy during the first trimester.
Explain the significance of Baker v. Carr (1960). This case established the principle of one man, one vote. It set guidelines for drawing congressional districts and created a more equitable system of representation for citizens of each state.
Determine the ruling of Gitlow v. New York (1925). The Court reversed its earlier decision, citing the due process clause of the 14th Amendment as reason to protect individual's free speech and free press rights found in 1st Amendment. 1st Amendment was incorporated to state and local level.
Assess the outcome of New York Times v. Sullivan (1963). L.B. Sullivan filed libel against the newspaper and did not have to prove he had been harmed. The Court held that the 1st Amendment protects the publication of all statements, even false ones, except when statements are made with actual malice.
Analyze the significance of Engel v. Vitale (1961). The Court ruled that school sanctioned prayer in public schools is unconstitutional. This was the first time prayer was declared unconstitutional.
Discuss the test that developed under Lemon v. Kurtzman (1970). The Court struck down a Pennsylvania law reimbursing parochial schools for textbooks and teacher salaries and established the Lemon Test. It is okay for the government to help schools if the law has a secular purpose and doesn't entangle govt. in religion
What was decided in New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1983). T.L.O was illegally searched by a principal after smoking marijuana in the school bathroom. The Court ruled that this search didn't violate 4th and 14th Amendments because the marijuana in the girl's gave a reasonable purpose to search.
What occurred in Gregg v. Georgia (1975)? Gregg challenged his death sentence as "cruel and unusual punishment" that violated the 8th and 14th Amendments. The Court ruled that it didn't violate these amendments, which assures the careful and judicious use of the death penalty.
Analyze the effects of U.S. v. Nixon on the presidency (1975). After the Watergate scandal, the Court ruled that "executive privilege" was not immune from judicial review. So, Nixon had to submit the tapes. He ended up resigning.
Assess the outcome of Bush v. Gore (2000). This case resolved the 2000 presidential election in favor of George W. Bush. The Court declared that Florida had violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. Bush was given the 25 electoral votes.
Created by: byrnekara