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Chp. 14 Lymphatic

Chapter 14 Lymphatic System

_____ is the name for tissue fluid that enters lymph capillaries. lymph
the systems of lymph vessels begins at dead-end lymph-capillaries found in most ____ spaces. tissue
lymph capillaries are very ______ and collect tissue fluid and proteins. permeable
_____ are specialized lymph capillaries in the villi of the small intestine. lacteals
what is the function of lacteals? they absorb the fat-soluble end products of digestion.
there is no ___ for lymph. pump
lymph vessels are found in the _________ spaces of most tissues. interstitial
________ cells overlaps to create ____ that prevent fluid form moving out. endothelial, flaps
as muscles ______ is forces lypmh up. contract
valves made of endothelium ______ lymph from flowing down. prevent
______ _______ is a large lymph vessel formed by the union of lymph vessels from the lower body. cisterna chyli
lymph vessels from the ULQ of the body join the ______ duct. thoracic
lymph vessels from the URQ of the body unite to form the _____ _______ duct. right lymphatic
lymphatic tissue consists of mainly lymphocytes in a ______ - like framework of connective tissue. mesh
lymphocytes become ______ and proliferate in response to ______. activated, infection
the _____ has stem cells that produce a significant portion of the T lymphocytes. thymus
lymph ____ and _______ are masses pf lymphatic tissue. nodes, nodules
what are usually larger; nodes or nodules? nodes.
________ are encapsulated. nodes
_____ do not have capsules. nodules
Where are lymph nodes found? in large groups along the pathways of lymph vessels.
as lymph passes through a lymph node, bacteria and other foreign materials are _______ by fixed ________. phagocytized, macrophages
_______ cells develop from B lymphocytes exposed to pathogens in the lymph and produce ________. plasma, antibodies
there are three specific pairs of lymph vessels because of the strategic location. What are they? cervical, axillary, and inguinal
breaks in the skin, with entry of ________ are much more likely to occur in the ____ or _____ or head rather than in the trunk. pathogens, arms, legs
if pathogens get to the lymph, they will be _______ by the lymph nodes. destroyed
________ ________ are small masses of lymphatic tissue found just beneath the epithelium of all _______ membranes. lymph nodules, mucous
name a few of the body systems that are lined with mucous membranes that have openings to the environment. respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive.
what are the lymph nodules of the pharynx called? tonsils
a tonsillectomy is the _______ ______ of the palatine tonsils. surgical removal
what are Peyer's patches? the lymph nodules of the small intestine
the _____ is located in the ULQ of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm and behind the stomach. spleen
in the fetus, the spleen produces ______ _RBC's or WBC's)? red blood cells
why is the spleen not considered a vital organ? because other organs compensate for its functions if the spleen must be removed.
the ____ and ___ bone marrow will remove old RBC's and ______ from circulation. liver, red, platelets
the lymph nodes and nodules will _______ pathogens and have __________ to be activated and plasma cells to produce antibodies. phagocytize, lymphocytes
is a person without a spleen more or less susceptible to certain bacterial infetions like pneumonia or meningitis? more susceptible.
the thymus is located ______ to the thyroid gland. inferior
the stem cells of the thymus produce T ___________ or T Cells. lymphocytes
_______ - __________ is the ability to distinguish the cells that belong in the body from those that do not. self - recognition
self-tolerance is the ability ____ to react to proteins and other organic molecules our cells produce. not
the T cells that do not react to "self" molecules but accept or tolerate them, are the cells that will _______. survive
usually, by the age of ___ years old, the immune system matures and becomes fully functional. two
immunity may be defined as the ability to ______ pathogens or other foreign material to prevent further cases of infectious diseases. destroy
the body is exposed to ______ from the moment of birth. pathogens
antigens are _________ markers that identify cells. chemical
When antigens are foreign, they are usually recognized as "non-self" antigens and may be _______. destroyed
_______ cells are a result of mutations of normal cells. malignant
Immunity has two main components. What are they? Innate immunity and adaptive immunity
______ immunity may be called "non-specific" innate
Innate immunity is nonspecific, no memory, and doesn't become more _____ with exposure. efficient
there are __ (number) barriers. seven
epidermis is ______ epithelium. keratinized
______ prevent bacterial growth sebum
_______ are antimicrobial made in the live epidermal cells defensins
______ membranes are a structural barrier mucous
ciliated epithelium sweep _________ out to be swallowed. pathogens
lysozome is in ____ and _____ that destroy pathogens. saliva, tears
white blood cells are in the submucosa and ________ tissue. subcutaneous
basophils and mast cells are what? defensive cells
where are basophils and mast cells found? in areolar connective tissue
what is the function of basophils and mast cells? they release chemicals that contribute to inflammation.
Natural killer cells _______ in the blood but are also found in the ___ bone marrow, spleen and lymph ______. circulate, red, nodes
NK cells are able to destroy many kinds of ______ and _____ cells. pathogens and tumor
how do NK cells kill foreign cells? by coming in direct contact with them and rupturing their membranes or inflicting some other kind of chemical damage.
_______ defenses help the body resist infection . chemical
_______ are proteins that are produced my cells infected with viruses and by T cells. interferons
viruses must be _______ a living cell in order to reproduce. inside
complement is a group of more than __ (number) plasma proteins that circulate the blood until _____. 20, activated
some complement cells stimulate the release of _________ in inflammation. histamine
inflammation is a general response to ______ of any kind. damage
what are the three types of damage that can cause inflammation? microbial,chemical or physical
_________ increases blood flow to the damaged area and capillaries become more permeable causing inflammation. vasodilation
what is the purpose of inflammation? to try to contain the damage, keep it from spreading, eliminate the cause, and permit repair of the tissue to begin.
what are the four signs of inflammation? swelling, pain, redness and heat
inflammation is a ________ feedback mechanism that may become a vicious cycle of damage and cause more damage. positive
prevention of more damage is prevented by ______ and one of the _________ proteins. cortisol, complement
________ immunity responds and learns as it responds to situations. adaptive
adaptive immunity is carried out by ___________ and _________. lymphocytes, macrophages
the majority of lymphocytes are __ cells. T cells
Where are T cells produced? from stem cells in the thymus and bone marrow in the fetus
B lymphocytes are ________ in bone marrow. produced
B cells migrate to the _________ tissue directly. lymphatic
T and B cells have a very specific _______ of pathogens. specific
T cells called Helper T Cells become _______ to the specific foreign antigen presented on the macrophage. sensitized
what are the 2 mechanisms of adaptive immunity? cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated immunity
cell-mediated immunity does not result in production of _______. antigens
another name for cell-mediated immunity is what? cellular immunity
cellular immunity is effective against __________ pathogens like fungi, malignant cells and grafts/transplants. intracellular
________ helper T cells divide to become cytotoxic cells. activated
cytotoxic cells _______ cytokines which attract macrophages and activates them. produce
memory B cells will remember the _______m antigen and initiate a rapid response upon a _____ exposure. specific, second
______ cells produce antibodies specific for this one foreign antigen. plasma
antibodies are called immune globulins or _______ ________. gamma globulins.
gamma globulins are shaped like what letter? the letter Y
gamma globulins are found in different _____ and have different ______. places, functions
opsonization is ______ foreign antigens by ______ to them. labeling, sticking
opsonization causes macrophages and neutrophils to _______ them. phagocytize
opsonization _________ compliment fixation. stimulates
_________ fixation is when certain complement proteins bond to the antigen-antibody complex. complement
agglutination are _____ of complexes that make it easier for phagocytosis clumps
______ complement attaches to the complex but not enough to destroy it. partial
partial complement causes chemotaxis of ________. macrophages
what is chemotaxis? chemically induced movement
there are 2 types of immunity. what are they? genetic immunity and active immunity
genetic immunity does not involve the _______ system. immune
passive immunity is immunity from ________ _________. another source
______ immunity is temporary. passive
passive immunity can be artificial or ______. natural
immunity is when the individual produces his own antibodies. active
is active immunity permanent or temporary? permanent
is active immunity natural or artificial? both
Created by: long2010