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S. Anat 13

Vascular system

Vascular system consists of ___, ___, and ____ Arteries, capillaries, veins
Vascular system circulates ___ Blood
Vascular system circulates blood to provide___, ___and ____ Gas, nutrients, waste exchange
Carry blood away from the heart Arteries
High pressure vessel Ateries
Arteries branch into smaller arteries until they become___ Arterioles
Arterioles empty into ___ Capillaries
Ateries have___layers 3
Artery layers (Aka) Tunics
Artery layers 1 ____, 3____ Inner, outter
First layer of an artery Tunica intima
Tunica intima ___layer Inner
The only layer that contacts the blood Tunica intima
Tunica intima made of __ __epithelium Simple squamous
Tunica intima epithelium (aka) Endothelium
Tunica intima is ____ with the Endocardium continuous
____prevents clotting Smoothness
Tunica intima produces____ Nitrous Oxide
NO is a ___ Vasodilator
Tunica media Middle layer
Tunica media made of____muscle and ____connect tissue Smooth, elastic
Tunica media helps maintain BP during _____ Diastole (relaxation phase)
NO increases ____ of tunica media Relaxation
Relaxation of tunica media ____BP Lowers
SNS Sympathetic Nervous System
SNS cause ____ Vasoconstriction
Tunica media has and ___/___ elastic lamina Internal and external
Internal elastic lamina separates____ 2 layers Inner
External elastic lamina separates_____2 layers Outer
Outer layer Tunica externa
Tunica externa made of___ ___ fibrous connective tissue Dense irregular
Dense irregular fibrous connective tissue provides strength to prevent______ Rupture
Artery rupture (aka) Aneurysm
Aneurysms are only in ___ Arteries
Tunica media and externa are___ in ___arteries Thick, large
Arterioles do not have a _____ Tunica externa
*Loose tunica media made of individual smooth muscle cells that wrap around the tunica intima
Individual smooth muscle allows it to prevent flow to ____ Capillaries
Carry blood toward the heart Veins
Veins have ___pressure Low
Veins start as ____ Venules
Venules start as Capillaries
Venules tunica intima have flaps called___ Valves
Valves are located in some veins in the ____extremities Lower
Venules tunica media is ____ Thinner
Tunica media is thinner because it does ____to regulate BP Little
Connection/joining of vessels Anastmoses
Artery to artery Anastmoses
Vein to vein Anastmoses
Anastmoses provides____when blockage occurs Alternate pathways
Single layer vessels that connect arterioles to venules Capillaries
Capillaries contain___cell One
Capillaries cannot___ Contract
Capillary is the diameter or one___ RBC
*The number of capillaries in a tissue reflect that tissues metabolic activity
Not all tissues contain____ Blood vessels
Tissues with no blood vessels must get their nutrients via__ Diffusion
Flow to capillaries is regulated by____ Precapillary sphincters
Capillaries are not regulated by NS but by the tissues itself base on Need
Takes the place of capillaries in some tissue Sinusoids
Large cavities relative to capillaries-Sinusoids
Sinusoids are more__ Permeable
Permeability permits__ __ and __ to pass through Large proteins, cells
Capillaries ___ material Exchange
Capillaries exchange material between the ___and ___in the tissue in both directions Blood, tissue fluid
Occurs because of the pressure in the vessel Filtration
Pressure created in the capillary that creates a concentration gradient to pull fluid to blood Colloid Osmotic pressure
COP Colloid Osmotic pressure
COP created primarily because of__ Albumin
COP can be thought of as “___” pressure that pulls H2o___the blood Pulling, into
COP occurs toward the ___side of the capillary Inner
COP helps maintain blood___ Volume
The amount of interstitial fluid formed is slightly___than the amount reabsorbed More
Excess interstitial fluid is returned via the _____ vessels Lymphatic
Pulmonary flow pathways (adult)__,__,__(2),__,__(4)__ RV, PT, PA(R&L),Lungs, PV(R&L), SVC
*Arteries are carrying deoxygenated blood and veins are carrying oxygenated blood
Systemic circulation pathways (adults)_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_,_ LV, Aorta, Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, Veins, SVC, IVC, RA
Anatomically divided in three Aorta
___aorta has two branches Ascending
___aorta has R &L coronary artery Ascending
____has 3 branches Aortic arch
3branches supply Head and upper extremities
____trunk on right Brachiocephalic
Brachiocephalic trunk branched into R. common carotid artery& R. subclavian artery
Right common carotid supplies Right side of the head
Right subclavian artery supplies Right upper extremities
Left common carotid artery supplies Left side of the head
Left subclavian artery supplies Left upper extremities
Vertebral arteries branch off of Subclavian arteries
Left subclavian changes to become ____artery Axillary
Axillary artery becomes the ____artery at the arm Brachial
Brachial artery branches and becomes the ____and ___ Radial, Ulnar
___aorta divided by diaphragm Descending
___aorta (above diaphragm) Thoracic
___abdominal (below diaphragm) Abdominal
Abdominal into Celiac
Celiac into(3) Hepatic, Epigastric, Splenic
Right and left__artery Renal
Artery at small intestines part of colon Superior mesenteric
Artery at gonads Gonadal
Artery supplying most of colon and rectum Inferior mesenteric
Descending aorta ends at__ L4
Descending divides at L4 into R&L common iliac arteries
Common iliac arteries divide into Internal and external Iliac
Internal and external iliac arteries both divide into Femoral and deep femoral arteries
Deep femoral changes its name at knee to_ Popliteal
Popliteal artery splits to Anterior and posterior tibial artery
Very important Anastmoses surrounding the pituitary Circle of Willis
Formed by R&L internal carotid artery and basilar artery Circle of Willis
Anterior, middle, posterior cerebral arteries branch off___and supply brain Circle of Willis
Often parallel an artery and are named the same names Vein
Popliteal v becomes Femoral v
Great saphenous v combines with femoral v becomes External iliac v
External and internal iliac v join to become Common iliac v
R&L common iliac vein combine and become IVC
Inferior mesenteric v join IVC
Gonadal v join IVC
Renal v join IVC
R&L gastric v join IVC
Intercostals v join IVC
(Upper extremity) Median v becomes Basilic
(Upper extremity)Basilic v combines with brachial v becomes Axillary
(Upper extremity)Cephalic v joins with axillary and becomes Subclavian
Directs blood from digestive organs before returning to heart Hepatic portal circulation
Directs blood from spleen to liver before returning to heart Hepatic portal circulation
(Hepatic portal circulation)superior mesenteric and splenic v unite to form Hepatic portal vein
(Hepatic portal circulation)from the liver if flows into the ____ v which empties into IVC
Placenta keeps the fetal and maternal blood____ Separate
Placenta keeps blood separate yet allows exchange of_,_,_ Gases, nutrients, waste
The umbilical cord has _ arteries and _vein 2, 1
Umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood ___fetus Away
Umbilical veins carry oxygenated blood ___ fetus Toward
Umbilical arteries branch off____artery Iliac
Umbilical v branches one goes to__, most blood passes the__ Liver, ductous venosous
Ductous venosous attaches to IVC
Any other fetal circulation differences are regarding the ___ and are essentially to bypass lungs Heart
Hole between atria in the Interatrial septum Foramen ovale
Takes some of oxygenated blood to LA Foramen ovale
Most of the blood allowed to pulmonary trunk is allowed to be bypassed by aorta Ductus arteriosis
Velocity of blood flow, as cross sectional area increases velocity___ Decreases
Total circulation time is about __ 1 minute
The force the blood exerts against the wall of the vessels Blood pressure
Filtration is dependent on BP
BP in the pulmonary circulations Pulmonary BP
Pulmonary BP is usually __of systemic circulation 1/6
Pressure when the LV contracts Systolic
Systolic usually between 90-120
Pressure when LV relaxes Diastolic
Diastolic usually between 60-80
___of large arteries help maintain diastolic pressure and pulse pressure Elasticity
The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure Pulse pressure
Thickness of blood Viscosity
Viscosity increased due to__ Solids
____increases vasoconstriction and heart rate Epinephrine
____increases vasoconstriction Norepinephrine
ADH Antidiuretic hormone
ADH ___reabsorption of water by kidneys Increases
Aldosterone ___ reabsorption of water by kidneys increasing sodium reabsorption Increases
ANP Arterial Natriuretic Peptide
ANP___ loss of water Increases
ANP ___excretion of sodium Increases
2 categories of BP regulations Intrinsic mechanism, nervous mechanism
Mechanism within the cardiovascular system Intrinsic
Mechanism controlled by ANS Nervous
Vasomotor center in Medulla
Vasoconstrictor area via SNS
Vasodilator area via PSNS
Created by: Sarsileigh



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