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s. Anat 12


Thoracic cavity between the lungs in the space called Mediastinum
_____ superior end of the heart Base
The _____is posterior to the sternum Base
_____enter and exit the base of the heart Great vessel
____inferior end of the heart Apex
Apex is just superior to the _____ Diaphragm
Apex is just ____ of the midline Left
Strongest heartbeat is found in the _____ Apex
Pericardial membranes are made of_____and_____ Serous, fibrous connective tissue
____pericardium-fibrous connective tissue (pericardial sac)
Fibrous pericardium is the ____most of the ___layers outer, 3
Serous pericardium has___ layers of the serous membrane 2
_____pericardium lines fibrous pericardium Parietal
____pericardium covers the heart Visceral
Visceral pericardium (aka) Epicardium
Heart membranes outside in: heart___, ___, ___ visceral, parietal, fibrous
Serous fluid secreted by ____serous membranes decrease___ both, friction
Heart has___chambers 4
Heart muscle Myocardium
Simple squamous epithelium lining 4chambers, valves, vessels Endothelium
Endocardium is ____to prevent____ Smooth, clotting
____prevent back flow Valves (check valves)
Upper chambers Atrium
Atrium are made of Thin myocardium
Wall that separates the atria Interatrial septum
Receives blood from 2 large caval veins Right Atrium
____vena cava receives blood from upper body Superior
____vena cava receives blood from lower body Inferior
Right atrium pumps blood to the _____ Right ventricle
RA pumps blood to RV through__ Atrioventricular valve
AV valves (aka) Tricuspid
AV valve is made of ____reinforced with____tissue Endocardium, connective
____receives blood from the lungs Left atrium
Left atrium receives blood from the____ Lungs
LA receives blood from lungs via ___pulmonary veins 4
LA pumps to ___ Left ventricle
LA pumps blood to LV through____ Atrioventricular valve
AV valve (aka) (2) Bicuspid, mitral
Atria produces a ____ Hormone
Hormone produced by atria Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
ANP Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (aka) Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
ANH Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
ANP____ reabsorption of Na+ ions Decreases
ANP deceases reabsorptin of Na+ ions by the _____which ____BP Kidneys, lowers
Lower heart chambers Ventricles
Wall that separates ventricles Interventricular septum
Ventricular cells produce BType Natriuretic Peptide
BNP BType Natriuretic Peptide
____pumps blood to the lungs Right ventricle
RV pumps blood to the lungs through the Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Strands of fibrous connective tissue that attach to the bottom of AV valve Cordae tendinea
Papillary muscles contract to prevent___/____ of AV valve prolapsed/inversion
RV have____ walls than LV Thinner
LV has____walls than RV Thicker
RV pumps blood to the ____ Aorta
RV pumps blood to the aorta through Aortic semilunar valve
Contraction of a chamber Systole
Relaxation of a chamber Diastole
____systole (lub) Atrial
____systole (dub) Ventricular
Improper closing of the valves Heart murmur
Electrical system of the heart Cardiac conduction pathway
Regulates the rate, rhythm, sequence of the muscle contraction Cardiac conduction pathway
Follows a very specific route through the heart Cardiac conduction pathway
Beats per minute Rate
Regular steady beat Rhythm
Pacemaker of the heart Sinoatrial Node
Specialized muscle cells in the wall of the RA Sinoatrial Node
SA node Sinoatrial node
Depolarizes faster than other cells because the cells are more permeable to NA+ SA Node
Where the signal travels after SA node depolarizes Atrioventricular Node
AV node Atrioventricular node
AV node is located in _____ Interatrial septum
______carries signal from the AV node to the bundle branches Atrioventricular bundle
Atrioventricular bundle (aka) Bundle of His
AV node is located in the _____ Superior Interventricular septum
______-take signal from AV bundle to Purkinje fibers Bundle branches
Measures the electrical activity of heart Electrocardiogram
Irregular heartbeats Arrhythmias
Conscious awareness of arrhythmias Palpitation
Uncoordinated contraction Fibrillation
_____can be Atrial or ventricular Fibrillation
_____ fibrillation is much more serious Ventricle
Measurement of the HR at a vessel Pulse
Normal at rest BPM 60-80
Less than 60 BPM Bradycardia
More than 100 BPM Tachycardia
Children BPM 100
Infants BPM 120
Near term fetus BPM 140
Athletes BPM as low as 35-40
The amount of blood pumped by in ventricle in one minute Cardiac output
Cardiac output varies base on Pulse
Volume of blood pumped by a ventricle in one beat Stoke volume
Stroke volume x HR Cardiac output
As cardiac muscle fibers are ____ the more ____they contract Stretch, forcefully
As cardiac muscle fibers are stretched the more forcefully the contract Starlings Law
The difference in resting output and maximum output in liters Cardiac reserve
Percent of blood in the ventricle that is pumped Ejection fraction
Ejection fraction average 60-70%
The CNS has the ability to influence the ____of contraction Rate
_____ (brain) contains 2 cardiac centers Medulla
Cardiac centers contained in medulla (2) Accelerator, Inhibitory
Carried by CNS, fight/flight Accelerator center
Carried by PNS, rest/digest Inhibitory center
____/_____ detect change in the arteries Pressoreceptor/baroreceptors
Pressoreceptor/baroreceptors located in the carotid and ____ Aortic arch
_____detect O2 content in blood Chemoreceptors
Chemoreceptor located in carotid and ____ Aortic body
Created by: Sarsileigh



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