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Chp. 13 Vasc. System

Chap 13 The Vascular System

The vascular systems constist of ________, capillaries and _________. arteries, veins
pumps blood throught the _____. body
the ______ of materials between the blood and _______ takes place in the capillaries. exchange, tissues
The arteries and veins transport blood between the __________ and the ________. capillaries, heart
_______ __________ (BP) is the force blood exerts against the walls of vessels. blood pressure
normal blood pressure is essential for _________ and some material exchanges in the capillaries. circulation
smaller arteries are called _______. arterioles
there are 3 ________ of tissues in an artery. layers
what are the 3 layers of an artery? The tunica intima, tunica media and the tunica externa
What layer is the tunica intima? the innermost layer
What type of tissue is the tunica intima made up of? simple squamoous epithelium
what is another name for simple squamous epithelium? endothelium
the endothelium lining is the same type of tissue that forms the _________. myocardium
what is the function of the endothelium in arteries? it's extreme smoothness and normal chemical composition prevent blood from clotting.
the endothelium of blood vessels also produce ________ that affect blood pressure. chemicals
nitric oxide is a _________. vasodilator
what is the function of nitric oxide? stimulates relaxation of the smooth muscle of the middle layer of a vessel.
peptide endothelin stimulates ________ or the smooth muscle with makes it a ___________. contraction, vasoconstrictor
What layer is the tunica media? the middle layer
the tunica media is made up of ______ muscle and ________ connective tissue. smooth, elastic
the tunica media and the tunica intima are involved in the maintenance of ___________ (diastolic/systolic) blood pressure. diastolic
________ of the tunica media brings about ________ of the vessel and a __________ (lower/higher) pressure. relaxation, dilation, lower
contraction of the the tunica media brings about ___________ and a (higher/lower) pressure. constriction, higher
increased sympathetic nerve impulses contribute to __________. vasodilation
a _________ in impulses contribute to vasodilation. decrease
what layer is the tunica externa? the outer layer
what type of tissue forms the tunica externa? fibrous connective tissue
is the tunica externa strong or weak? very strong
what is the tunica externa stronger than the other layers of the arteries? to prevent rupture or bursting of the larger arteries that carry blood under high pressure
the smooth muscle layer enables arteries to ______ or ______. constrict or dilate
______ carry blood from capillaries back to the ______. veins, heart
smaller veins are called what? venules
the same three tissue layers are present in veins as in the walls of _______. arteries
The inner layer of veins is ______ endothelium, but sometimes this lining is folded to form ______. smooth, valves
what is the function of valves? to prevent backflow of blood
Where are veins most prominent? the legs
________ veins are swollen and distended veins that occur most often in the superficial veins of the legs. varicose
is the middle layer of veins thin or thick? thin
why is the middle layer of veins thin instead of thick? veins do not regulate blood pressure and blood flow
veins can ______ extensively. constrict
veins have a _________ (greater/lower) capacity than arteries. greater
an _________ is a connection or joining of vessels. anastomosis
an arterial anastomosis helps ensure ______ will get to their correct destination to deliver oxygen and remove _____ products. blood, waste
a _______ anastomosis helps ensure blood can return to heart in order to be _______ again. venous, pumped
capillaries carry blood from ______ to _______. arterioles, venules
blood flow into capillary networks is regulated by _______ muscle cells called __________ _________. smooth, precapillary sphincters
where are precapillary sphincters found? at the beginning of each network
precapillary sphincters are not regulated by the NS, but do constrict or ______ depending on the needs of the ______. dilate, tissues
precapillary sphincters are usually slightly __________. constricted
_________ are larger and more permeable than other capillaries. sinusoids
the permeability of sinusoids permits ______ substances like ________ and blood cells to enter or leave the blood. large, proteins
where are sinusoids found? in the red bone marrow (RBM) and spleen. also in organs like the liver and pituitary gland
_______ are the sites of ________ of materials between the blood and the tissue fluid surrounding the cells. capillaries, exchanges
gases move by ________ from their area of _______ concentration to their area of ________ concentration. diffusion, greater, lesser
filtration forces _____ and dissolved nutrients out of the capillaries and in to ______ fluid. plasma, tissue
blood pressure ________ as blood reaches the venous end of capillaries. decreases
albumin contributes to ______ _______ ________ (COP). colloid osmotic pressure
what is COP? an attracting pressure, a pulling pressure rather than a pushing pressure.
at the venous end of capillaries, the presence of _____ in the blood ____ tissue fluid into the capillaries. albumin, pulls
the tissue fluid that returns to the blood also helps ______ normal blood volume and blood ______. maintain, pressure
what are the two major pathways of circulation? pulmonary and systemic
what is pulmonary circulation? pulmonary circulation begins at the right ventricle.
Systemic circulation begins at the ____ ventricle. left
______ ______ circulation is a special segment of systemic circulation. hepatic portal
the ____ ventricle pumps blood into the right and left pulmonary arteries, one going to each lung. right
within the lungs, each artery branches into smaller arteries and arterioles, then to ________. capillaries
the pulmonary capillaries surround the ____ of the lungs. alveoli
capillaries unite to form venules, which merge into ____ and then into the two pulmonary veins. veins
the _____ ventricle pumps blood into the aorta. left
true or false: the aorta is the smallest artery in the body. false: it is the largest artery in the body
the veins from the lower body take blood to the ______ vena cava. Inferior
veins from the upper body take blood the the ______ ____ ____. superior vena cava
the two caval veins return blood to the _____ atrium. right
the aorta is divided into 4 sections. what are they? ascending aorta, aortic arch, thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta.
which section of the aorta comes first? The ascending aorta which emerges form the top of the left ventricle
the arch of the aorta curves ________ over the heart and turns downward. posteriorly
the _____ aorta continues downward through the chest cavity and through the diapragm. thoracic
the abdominal aorta continues to the level of the 4th _____ vertebra, where it divides into the two common ___ arteries. lumbar, iliac
the ascending aorta has two branches that are called the right and left coronary arteries. where do these arteries supply blood to? the myocardium
the aortic arch has __ branches that supply blood to the head and ___. 3, arms
some arteries in the head contribute to an important arterial anastomosis called the ______ of ______. circle of willis
what does the circle of willis surround? the pituitary gland
the circle of willis is formed by the ___ and ____ internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery. right and left
the thoracic aorta and it's branches supply the _____ wall and the organs within the thoracic cavity. chest
the abdominal aorta gives rise to arteries that supply the abdominal wall and organs and to the _____ _____ arteries. common iliac
the _____ veins drain blood from organs or parts of the body and often parallel to their corresponding arteries. systemic
hepatic portal circulation is a subdivision of _______ ____________ in which blood from abdominal digestive organs and spleen circulate. systemic circulation
the fetus depends on the mother for ____ and _____ and for the removal of carbon dioxide. oxygen, nutrients
the ______ contains fetal and maternal blood vessels that are very close to one another. placenta
the fetus is connected to the placetna by the ______ _____. umbilical cord
the umbilical cord contains two umbilical arteries and one _________ vein. umbilical
the ________ _________ are branches of the fetal internal iliac arteries. umbilical arteries
the umbilical vein carries ________ blood from the placenta to the ______. oxygenated, fetus
the _____ ______ attaches to the inferior vena cava. ductus venosus
what is the hole between the atria i the interatrial septum? the foramen ovale
velocity of blood is the velocity or ______ with which blood flows. speed
total circulation time is about one ______. minute
______ pressure is when the left ventricle contracts. systolic
dystolic pressure is when the left ventricle ______. relaxes
_____ is constant hight blood pressure. hypertension
hypotension is _______ normal BP. below
_______ _______ is the amount of blood returned from the veins tot he heart. venous return
______ muscle _____ is when skeletal muscles squeeze the veins and force blood back to the heart. skeletal muscle pump
respiratory pump is during both ________ and _________ pressure squeezes pulmonary blood and forces it to the heart. inhalation, exhalation
______ of large arteries helps maintain diastolic pressure and pulse pressure. elasticity
_____ pressure is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure. pulse
viscosity of the blood is _________ of the blood. thickness
epinephrine _______ vasoconstriction and BP. increases
_____ increases reabsorption of of H2O by the kidneys. ADH
_______ increases reabsorption of H2O by the kidneys by increasing Na+ reabsorption. aldosterone
ANP _______ loss of water by increasing excretion of Na+. increases
the two categories of BP regulation are what? intrinsic mechanisms and nervous mechanisms
intrinsic mechanisms are within the ____________ system. cardiovascular
intrinsic mechanisms do not require _____ input. nervous
Nervous mechanisms are controlled by the ___. ANS
the vasomotor center is in the _____. medulla
Created by: long2010



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