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Anatomy_5

Hip & Knee Joints

QuestionAnswer
What is the articulation between the head of the femu and the acetabulum of the hip bone? Hip joint
Where does the fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum attach? To lunate surface of acetabulum
What encircles the head of the femur lateral to the equator of the head and grips the ehad of the femur? Labrum
What fills the acetabular fossa? Fat pad
What joins the two free ends of the labrum? Transverse acetabular ligament
What is four fifths of a hemisphere? Head of femur
What is covered in articular cartilage except at the central pit? Articular surface of the head of the femur
What type of joint is the hip joint? Ball and socket joint
What extends from the acetabular notch to attach to head of the femur at the central pit? Ligament of the head of the femur
Where do the ligaments of the joint capsule attach distally? Only to the base of the lesser trochanter, to the intertrochanteri line and to the anterior base of the greater trochanter; joint capsule does not attach to posterior surface of proximal femur
What are the attachments of the iliofemoral ligament (Y-ligament of Bigelow)? Superior acetabular rim and anterior inferior iliac spine and diverges inferiorly to attach to lesser trochanter and intertrochanteric line
What are the attachments of the pubofemoral ligament? Attaches medially to anterior margin of the acetabular rim; laterally and inferiorly, the fibers merge with iliofemoral fibers
What function does the pubofemoral ligament have? Limits abduction of the thigh
What are the attachments of the ischiofemoral ligament? Posterior, superior margin of acetabulum, and the fibers pass anteriorly to attach to anterior most portion of greater trochanter
What encircles the lateral margin of the fibrous joint capsule and constrict the joint capsule around the neck of the femur? Orbicular fibers
What attaches around the margin of the articular surface of the head of the femur, lines the interior of the joint capsule then and reflects back over the neck of the femur to attach to the articular portion of the acetabulum? Synovial membrane
While allowing considerable mobility, the ligaments are arranged in a particular way. What does this arrangement of ligaments do? Restricts extension of the thigh and also becomes more taut during hip extension - this increases the force that maintains the head of the femur in acetabulum
What covers the hip joint anteriorly? Rectus femoris
What reinforces the joint capsule of the hip medially and inferiorly? Iliopsoas tendon
What muscles provide support to the hip joint superiorly? Gluteus medius and minimus
What muscles reinforce the hip joint posteriorly? Deep gluteal muscles (lateral rotators)
What provides considerable shunt force to keep the head of the femur seated in the acetabulum? Tonic contraction of muscles that cross the hip joint
What is the main arterial supply to the femoral component of the hip joint? Medial circumflex femoral artery
Where do the branches of the medial circumflex femoral artery pass? Pass posterior to the neck of the femur and are larger, as they don't have to penetrate the joint capsule
What supplies the head and neck of the femur? A retinaculum formed from the branches of medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries
What supplies the head of the femur through the ligament of the head of the femur? Branch of the obturator artery - this is only supplying a significant amount of blood until about the age of 6 to 10
What are the large, crescent-shaped expansions of the medial and alteral distal femur? Condyles
Which condyle is larger both medial-laterally and anterior-posteriorly? Medial condyle
What is found between the two femoral condyles? Intercondylar fossa
What does the union of the two femoral condyles on the anterior surface of the distal form? Articular surface for the patella
The superior surface of the tibia presents the tibial plateaus formed of concave medial and lateral tibial condyles. What separates the concave medial and lateral tibial condyles? Intercondylar eminence
What is larger - the medial tibial condyle or the lateral tibial condyle? Medial tibial condyle
How many articular surfaces are located on the deep surface of the patella that will conform to the rounded bulges of the femoral condyles? 2
When are the femoral and tibial articular surfaces most congruent? In upright, standing position
What are the principal movements of the knee? Flexion and extension
Where does the cord-like lateral collateral ligament attach? Lateral epicondyle of femur and to head of fibula
Where does the broad, thick medial collateral ligament attach? Medial femoral epicondyle and to superior aspect of the medial condyle of tibia
What is the posterior band that extends from the fibular collateral ligament over the popliteus muscle to merge with the joint capsule? Arcuate ligament
What is the function/purpose of the arcuate ligament? Maintains the tendon of popliteus in posiiton
Where is the tendon of popliteus located? Why is it located here? Inside the joint capsule because of maintenance by arcuate ligament
What is an extension of the semimembranosus attachment that merges with the joint capsule posteriorly? Oblique popliteal ligament
What reinforces the joint capsule anteriorly? Patella, quadriceps tendon, and the patellar ligament; also aponeurotic extensions of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis
What are the attachments of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)? Arises from anterior intercondylar area and passes posteriorly, laterally, and superiorlly to attach to medial side of the lateral femoral condyle
What does the ACL prevent? Prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia when the knee is fully extended
What prevents the tibia from being pulled anteriorly with the knee flexed at 90 degrees? ACL is taut
What are the attachments of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)? Attaches to the posterior intercondylar area and extends anteriorly, medially, and superiorly to attach to the lateral side of the medial femoral condyle
What does the posterior cruciate ligament limit? Limits posterior displacement of the tibia on the femur or anterior displacement of femur on tibia
What are the crescent-shaped fibrocartilagenous plates applied to the margins of the tibial condyles? Menisci
What are the attachments of the menisci? Ends are attached to interconylar area of tibia, and their anterior ends are joined by transverse ligament of knee; attached along thicker outside edges to tibial condyles and taper to thin unattached marin in middle of joint space
What is larger - medial or lateral meniscus? Medial is larger and more C-shaped
Why is the medial meniscus also injured when the tibial collateral ligament is torn? Medial meniscus is attached to medial collateral ligament
What intervenes between the lateral meniscus and the fibular collateral ligament? What implication does this have? Tendon of popliteus; lateral meniscus is less likely to be torn with injury to the fibular collateral ligament
What meniscus is smaller and more circular? Lateral meniscus
What attaches to the posterior margin of the lateral meniscus and to the PCL? Posterior meniscofemoral ligament
Are the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral articular surfaces located inside or outside the synovial cavity? Inside the synovial cavity
Is the space between the condyles including the cruciate ligament located inside or outside the synovial cavity? Outside the synovial cavity
The synovial cavity continues superior to the patella into a rather large suprapatellar bursa. What pulls the bursa out of harm's way during extension of the knee? Aricularis genu
What protect muscles and/or tendons as they lie adjacent to bone, the knee joint capsule, or each other? Small, localized bursae
What helps the skin glide smoothly over the bones as the knee is moved? Subcutaneous bursae
What muscles and tendons cross the knee joint and impart considerable stability to the knee joint? What bony structure is important in this regard? Quadriceps femoris tendon, patella, and patellar ligament
What is a plane synovial joint between the fibular head and the posterior and lateral surface of the lateral tibial epicondyle? Proximal tibiofibular joint
What is a non-articular fibrous joint of the tibia and fibula? Distal tibiofibular joint
Created by: Cory67