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ch3 drjolley

chapter 3

smallest living subunit cells
cells work together with other cells
cell/plasma membrane selectively permeable
phospholipid bilayer double layer
cholesterol decreases fluidity stablizing the membrane
protiens pores/channels
Nucleus all cells except mature red blood cells
nucleus have? double layered nuclear membranes
cytoplasm liquid solution of dissolved minerals, gases. and other molecules
Contains organelles Cytoplasm
Organelles "organs" of the cell, literally "little organs"
Proteasome barrel-shaped organelle made of enzymes that cut protein molecules apart
Endoplasmic Reticulum membranous tubules that extend from the nuclear membrane to the cell membrane.
2 types of Endoplasmic reticulum Rough ER, and Smooth ER
Rough ER Ribosomes on the surface
Smooth ER No ribosomes on the surface
Golgi Appartus Flat membranous sacs stacked like pancakes
Mitochondria power house of the cell
Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes called lysosomal
Centrioles Rod-shaped, organize spindle fibers that separate chromosomes during cell division
Cilia Many thread-like projections on certain cells
Flagella Mobile thread-like projection through the cell membrane
Microvilli Folds of the cell membrane that increase surface area
Vacuoles Pinched off plasma membrance during phagocytosis and pinocytosis
What does cellular transport mechanism do? move substances in and out of the cell
Diffusion movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to and area of lesser concentration along a concentration gradient until equilbrium is reached.
Osmosis Diffusion of Water through a selectively permeable membrane
isotonic equal concentration of solutes
hypotonic low concentration of solutes
hypertonic solution higher concentration of solutes
Facilitated diffusion diffusion molecules through a membrane with help from proteins in the cell membrane called transporters
active transport energy requiring process of moving molecules against a concentration gradiet
Filtration substance are forced through fluids out of capillaries into the interstitial spaces
Phagocytosis moving cell engulfs something
pinocytosis stationary cell engulfs something
DNA double strand of nucletides twisted into a double helix made up of A,T,G,C
Protein synthesis Occurs in the Ribosomes
how many types of Cell division are there? two
Mitosis one cell divides into two identical cells both having a full set of chromosomes
Meiosis one cell divides into 4 cells each having half of the chromosomes
Mitosis Diploid number, Full set of chromosomes
interphase not a phase
prophase chromosomes coil up
metaphase chromosomes line up in the middle
Anaphase Spindle fibers pull chromosomes to each pole
Telophase Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin
Cytokinesis cytoplasm divides and cell membranes close off
Meiosis results in gametes (egg and sperm)
Fertilization egg and sperm meet and join chromosomes to form a 2n diploid zygote
Created by: Brandypeters



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