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Intro to Optho

Clinical Medicine II

What is the appreviation for R eye and L eye and both R: oculus dexter OD L: oculus sinister both: oculus unitas
What is visual acuity distance at which u can c an object/distance at which a “normal” person can see an object
Is 20/10 or 20/100 better vision 20/100 nl person can see at 20 feet I can see at 100
When do you take a visual acuity, why? 1st!! before everything you do!!!! It establishes a baseline
Normal vision without corrective lenses emmetropia
Near sightedness myopia, focuses before the retina
Far sightedness hyperopia, focuses behind the retina (born this way)
Light focuses at two points rather than one astigmatism, shape of eye is different
What are the glands locted posterior to the eyelashes Meibomian oil glands, prevents eyes from drying out
Inflammation of the lid margin blepharitis MC is Staph
Tx for blepharitis lid scrubs, possibly topical abx?
Bacterial infx inside the meibomian glands hordeolum (stye)
Tx for stye warm compress, NOT abx, heal in 1-2wks pt ed: will get worse before getting better
Difference b/w chalazion and hordeolum styes are painful to the touch, chalazion is not
Sxs free minimally tender nodule of the lid chalazion
Tx for chalzion warm compress and time
Lower eyelid and eyelashes turn out abnormally w/ poor apposition of the globe and lid ectropion
Lower eyelid and eyelashes abnormally turn inward: pain/irritation entropion Common w/ Asians
Dropping of the lid ptosis
Waxy, raised cholesterol deposits around medial canthal region Xanthelasma
Inflammation of the drainage system of the eye dacrocystitis
Inflammation of the tear duct/gland itself dacroadenitis
L6(SO4)3 lacteral rectus innervated by VI Superior rectus: 4 rest are 3
Difference between phorias and tropias phorias: cover eyes→turn in or out Tropia happens all the time, Esotropia/exotropia
Disruption of normal vision development Ambylopia: lazy eye
Anterior refractive surface cornea
Is the cornea vascular? no, but HIGHLY innervated: painful!!!!
5 layers of the cornea epithelium, bowman’s membrane, stroma, descemet’s membrane, endothelium
Why does the cornea often get abrasians but no perforations Bowman’s membrane, extremely thick
Dry eyes keratitis
Squamous epithelial membrane covering the globe (bulbar) and eyelids (palpebrae) conjunctiva, has glands and lymphatics
MC cause of conjunctivitis VIRAL!!!!!!!
What should we always consider if conjunctivitis is occurring iritis
How do we tell the difference b/w bacterial and viral conjunctivitis bacterial: mucopurulent discharge all day long (not just the morning)
When do we prescribe antivirals ONLY if cornea is involved, VERY rare to prescribe
When do we prescribe soft steroids ONLY when there is something BIG in their life next day, must taper: rebound infx
White part of the eye sclera
Gradual onset, DEEP sclera injection, deep pain what may radiate to jaw or temple painful to palpation Scleritis
Causes of scleritis connective tissue dz, RA, disorders of menstruation
Acute onset of redness, pain dull ache localized to eye, VA nl, recurrent episodes Episcleritis
Causes of episcleritis 75% idiopathic, Gout, Rosacea, young adults
Space between cornea and lens (holds what ) anterior chamber, aqeous humor
Dark, unreflective layer b/w sclera and retina choroid: so light doesn’t reflect back out
What attachs the lens to the eye Zonules
Cataract loss of transparency of lense, biochemical changes occur within cells of lens
Jelly-like substance giving body to the globe vitrous humor
What is vitreous humor made of hyaluronic acid and hyaloid fibers
Yellow or yellow-white calcium-laden lipids suspended in the vitrous asteroid hyalosis
Rare cholesterol formations, in dz’d eyes, settles to the bottom synchisis scintillans
Suddenly see white spots and when I move my eyes I see flashes THINK RETINAL detachment, commonly post vitreous detachment
What does the Cup: disc ration measure pressure in the eye, d/t 1: physiological 2: eye pressure
What measurement of the cup do we worry about >.5 but must take into account physiological causes
Main characteristic of papilledema BILATERAL swelling of the optic nerve head: ↑ICP need CT r/o bleed
Unilateral inflammation of the optic nerve head papillitis: dramatic ↓ VA, d/t HSV, MS, giant cell arteritis
What does papilledema look like can’t see the borders of the optic disc, not smooth
Difference b/w papilledema and papillitis look very similar edema: bilateral, it is: unilateral
What is the only place to see blood vessels inside the body ophthalmic artery in posterior eye
Name 4 pathologies of BV’s in the eye exudates, hemorrhage, AV nicking, Copper wiring→silver wiring
What it’s the light and color receptor retina
Micro-infarctions of nerve fiber layers cotton wool spots, non-proliiferative diabetic retinopathy
Separation of the retinal tissue from underlying retinal pigment epithelium retinal detachment
Flashing lights, superior vision is blocked inferior retinal detachment
R sided vision lost L sided retinal detachment
3 classic signs of retinal detachment flashing lights, ↑ floaters, curtains of loss of vision
Straight ahead, color vision fovea, where most of our vision is directed ↑ cone concentrated
MC cause of legal blindness in western world macular degeneration
Hyaline material present in optic disc or substrate of the retina dursen
How can we put in eye drops put 1 drop on lower lid
Created by: becker15
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