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World War I

"place in the sun" a sort of recognition that Germans thought they deserved due to their success; supremacy like that of Great Britain
Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy; pre-WWI alliance;
"splendid isolation" Great Britain cherished the fact that the country did what it wanted and would form no alliances with continental states; therefore, international relations were very bad
Triple Entente Great Britain, France, Russia; pre-WWI; only a close understanding, neither side said what it would do if war; breathing room for GB
"Union of Death" Bosnian revolutionary group that completed the assassination of heir to Hapsburg empire, Franz Ferdinand
Black Hand nickname given to the unknown man who actually killed Franz Ferdinand; acted w/out knowledge of Serbian officials
Sarajevo Bosnian capital (in Austrian Empire) where Franz Ferdinand was killed
"blank check" Germany gave Austria-Hungary the OK to give Serbia an ultimatum; why? Germany saw it as an opportunity/excuse to demostrate power and their 'place in the sun'
Edward Grey British foreign secretary during WWI
Wilhelm(William) II German emperor at time of WWI
Central Powers former Triple Alliance - Italy; Germany and Austria-Hungary (during WWI alliance); plus Turkey and Bulgaria
Allied Powers (Allies) former Triple Etentre; Great Britain, France, Russia + Italy and US
Schlieffen Plan first defeat France as quickly as possible by moving through Belgium, then defeat Russia on Eastern front; history backed short win against France (Franco-Prussian War)
Marne (1914); First major battle on the western front; brings an end to the Schleiffen Plan and results in a stalemate on Western Front; both sides dig, resulting in trench warfare
Tannenberg (1914); First major battle on Eastern Front; Russian losses are heavy, but they keep fighting
Gallipoli (1915); Great Britain and France attempt to open communication with Russia to assist them; fails
Jutland (1915); major naval battle between Great Britain and Germany in the North Sea with no clear winner; Germany held its own against GB
Verdun (1916); German offensive on Western Front with the hope of breaking the stalemate; fails
Somme (1916); French and GB offensive on the western front with the hope of breaking the stalemate in second half of year; fails
contraband goods headed for a country at war; munitions and raw materials that can be used for military equipment
noncontraband goods headed for a country at war; food and raw cotton; suppossed to be able to import this during wartime; ignored by Allies
Lusitania a British sealiner that the German submarines torpedoed; 1200 people died, 118 Americans; carried war munitions and Germany had warned America
Zimmerman Telegram Zimmerman (German foreign affairs) sent telegram to Mexico City - if Mexico joins Germany/messes with the US, they will regain their lost territories; intercepted and decoded by GB
Zionists saw impending Ottoman collapse as an opportunity to have a Jewish state; Pre WWI- just a dream; possible post WWI
"Jewish homeland" backed by GB; Jewish state in Palestine that had been Arab for over 1000 years
Woodrow Wilsom campaigned on "he kept us out of war" but eventually joined with Allies; controlling anarchic nationalism and preventing war in the future
technological advances airplanes, machine guns, tanks,. U-Boat (submarine); poison gas
why did Italy switch sides? iradenta
Nicholas II last Rusian czar who abdicated on March 15, 1917; shows how bad situation is in Russia: "I'm out" not "I'm putting my foot down"
Provisional Government took over after Nicholas II; made of liberal noblemen and middle-class leaders; only 1 socialist; still not very popular among Russians - still going to war because they don't want to sell out GB and France
V.I. Lenin leader of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Marxist party; returned to Russia in 1917 "Leninbomb" from Germany
Why did Germany send Lenin back to Russia? they want revolution and withdrawl from war in Russia; "Leninbomb: more effective that anything else Germany did - it worked!
Petrograd St. Petersburg; capital
Bolsheviks more extreme Marxists, lead by Lenin; won power in Nov. 1917; name means "majority", but not actually the majority of Russian peoples
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Bolsheviks wanted to stop war w/Germany so were cornered into the treaty; independence of Poland, Ukraine, Finland, Baltic - nonRussians --> Germany from Russia; doesnt matter to Lenin because there's gonna be a world-wide communist revolution
Ferdinand Foch commander in chief of all Allied forces in France with national commanders subordinate to him (French)
Pershing American commander in France
Argonne final Allied offensive (Sep. 1918); Germany realized it couldn't win WWI - it might have to face invasion from France; forest in eastern France; Germany stops - we dont want what happened in Russia to happen here
convoying made effective for the US because of larger naval base; ships protecting other ships (naval protecting cargo)
Red Baron Manfred von Richthofen
ace flyers that had the most kills
Oswald Boelche Richthofen's teacher
Why does Richtothofen continue fighting? the men in the trenches
When was Red Baron shot down? April 21, 1918
Who shot down Red Baron and what country? Roy Brown (Canada
Reichstag the German congress; majority wanted democratic parliament in Berlin;
Ludendorff Germany military leader; informed Kaiser to allow for negotiation talks to "regroup his army" - actually, he knows Germany is screwed, but this way, he can blame the loss on the Weimar Republic - saving face for the military
Weimar Republic the 'forced' German republic because of war; became a republic for peace, saving face, and avoiding revolution (what happened in Russia wont happen here)
planned economy the state attempted to control all wealth, resources, and moral to one end/causes; basically THE GOVERNMENT CONTROLS THE ECONOMY
rationalization coordination of production in the interests of the whole country; no more strikes, dresseat modestly, showing off wealth isn't cool anymore
conscription allocation of manpower; forced draft, participation in the war effort
war socialism GOVERNMENT IS IN CONTROL OF THE ECONOMY; government doesn't want to give up power after war, so they then plan programs and such for the 'betterment of the people' instead of war; European governments become more socialist after WWI
profiteers those who exploited shortages to make money;
brand new post WWI countries Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia
Treaty of Versailles the German treaty between the Allies and Germany; Wilson's baby, but ironically enough, the US didn't sign it
Fourteen Points peace established; end secret diplomacy & treaties; freedom of seas; remove barriers on int. trade; reduce arms; readjust colonies; self-determination; int. political organizations to avoid war; Wilson's democratic enlightened long lasting peace post WWI
Big Four Great Britain, US, France, Italy
US representative Wilson
French representative Clemenceau
GB representative LLoyd George
Italian representative Orlando
League of Nations permanent int. body where all nations should meet and discuss/settle disputes; no seorting to war; maitain sovereignty; Wilson's baby, but US never joined
Anglo-French-Am Treaty GB and US would join France if France was attacked by the Germans; Alsace and Lorraine to France, protected by Allied forces for 10 years; US has no plans of holding up their side of the treaty - age of American isolationism
mandates former colonies of the losing countries, administered by the "League of Nations"... but basically just controled by the winners
war guilt clause Germany alone was responsible for the war and all its loss and damages; supported by Big4 - Wilson; they want revenge (aka carve up); Wilson's compromise: "I get League of Nations, you get war guilt clause"
Hall of Mirrors where Germany was forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles; sticking it to the Germans (where German emperor was crowned)
cordon sanitaite land that had been given to Germany during the war became free, independent states; independent (good for Wilson) and a buffer zone against communism (good for western Europe)
reparation money from 'damages' that Germany was ordered to pay;
3 types of punishment given to Germans 1. $ (reparations) 2. military restrictions (so many of x, so many of y, only in location A; can't have military in Rhineland, buffer zone for Fr.) 3. territorial loss (colonies or actual European land)
When was the armistice called for WWI 11:11 11/11/18
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