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A&P 256 final

How many ATP from Krebs cycle 2 ATP molecules; Krebs is next step in glucose oxidation in mitochondrial matrix and fueled by pyruvic acid
What is Electron Transport Chain Oversees final catabolic reactions; aerobic
What is the Splanchnic circulation Arteries that branch off abdominal aorta to serve digestive organs and hepatic portal circulation
What is the hepatic portal circulation Arterial supply – the hepatic, splenic and left gastric branches of the celiac trunk that serves the spleen, liver and stomach
What is composition of saliva/ 97-99.5% water so it is hypo-osmotic. Slightly acidic 6.75-7.00. contains electrolytes, salivary amylase, protein mucin, lysozyme, and IgA. Mucin forms thick mucous that lubricates oral cavity.
Protection against microorganisms in saliva are IgA antibodies, lysozyme, cyanide compound, and defensins
What are chief cells Produce pepsinogen the inactive form of the protein digesting enzyme pepsin; occur mainly in basal regions of gastric cells. The chief cells release pepsinogen that are activated by HCL to help convert it to pepsin
What are parietal cells Found mainly in middle region of glands scattered among chief cells secrete HCL and intrinsic factor.
What is needed for absorption of Vitamin B12 Intrinsic factor. The only stomach function essential to life is the secretion of intrinsic factor
What are goblet cells in mucosa Found in epithelium of the mucosa are simple columnar epithelium rich in mucus secreting goblet cells. Goblet cells produce mucous to protect digestive organs from being digested themselves from enzymes and eases food passage
What is anabolism A term for reactions in which larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones; for example the binding of amino acids to make proteins.
What is Catabolism Process that break down complex structures to simpler ones such as hydrolysis of foods in digestive track
Three stages of metabolism of energy containing nutrients – stage one Digestion in GI tract lumen of protens to amino acids, carbs to glucose/sugar and fats to glycerol /fatty acids.
Three stages of metabolism of energy containing nutrients – stage two Anabolism and formation of catabolic intermediaries in tissue; proteins, fats and transforming glucose via glycolysis to make pyruvic acid and then into AcetylCoA.
Three stages of metabolism of energy containing nutrients – stage three Oxidative breakdown in mitochondria of tissue cells via krebs cycle to make ATP and oxidative phosphorylation .
Glucose breakdown occurs how Glycolysis into krebs cycle and then into electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
What is glycolysis Sugar splitting; Series of ten steps by which glucose is converted into two pyruvic acid molecules; anaerobic process
What is glycolytic pathway 1. Sugar activation 2. Sugar cleavage 3. Oxidation and ATP formation
What is basal metabolic rate Reflects energy the body needs to perform only its most essential functions.
What is body metabolic rate Total heat produced by all chemical reactions and mechanical work of body.
True or false – body temp and BMR tend to rise and fall together True
How are fatty acids oxidized Catabolism of glycerol & fatty acid chains; thru beta oxidation the fatty acid chains are broken and acetic acid molecule is fused to coenzyme A forming Acetyl CoA
What is the function of glycogen When glycolosis is turned off by high ATP levels, glucose molecules are combined to form glycogen the animal carbohydrate storage product.
Where is most glycogen stored Liver where it can use its glycogen stores to provide blood sugar for other organs when glucose levels drop. Liver glycogen is important energy source for skeletal muscles. Complex carbs are more effective in sustaining muscles
What are nutrients Carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals and water
What are essential nutrients Nutrients that cannot be made in the body so must be provided by the diet.
Why is fat necessary in our diet Help body absorb fat soluble vitamins, triglycerides are major energy fuel for hepatocytes & skeletal muscle, and phospholipids are essential component of myelin sheaths and cell membranes
What is nitrogen balance Rate of protein synthesis equals rate of protein breakdown and loss. Homeostatic state is reflected in our nitrogen balance. In balance when amt of nitrogen in protein equals amount excreted in feces & urine
How do we get ketones/ketone bodies Without oxaloacetic acid, fat oxidation is incomplete. Acetyl CoA accumulates in ketogenesis. The liver converts the acetyl CoA to ketones which are released in the blood
When do we hear heartbeat Gestational age 1 month
When are lungs complete 8 month gestational age
When is basic spinal cord & brain structure completed 3 month gestational age
When can mom possible start feeling fetal movements 4 month gestational age
Males gamete production Mitosis of spermatagonium (diploid) primary spermatocyte (dna replication/synapsis & tetrad formation) meiosis I –secondary spermatocyte  Meiosis II – spermatids (haploid) spermiogenesis –spermatazoa (physical maturation)
Oogenesis Mitosis oogonium (before birth)–primary oocyte (diploid)Meiosis I after pub) 1st polar body & 2nd oocyte (haploid),meiosis II beginning in tert.follicle; 2nd oocyte in metaphase of meiosis II;if fertilized meiosis II completed; 2nd polar body and ovum
What is FSH in males Follicle stimulating hormone which affects semeniferous tubules to promote spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis; from pituitary gland; affect cns, bone & muscle growth, secondary characteristics, maintenance of accessory glands & organs
What is LH in males From pituitary gland stimulates secretion from testes of testosterone and other androgens
What is FSH in females Affects developing follicle; secretes inhibin and estrogen, affect cns, bone & muscle growth, secondary characteristics, maintenance of accessory glands & organs
What is LH in females Secretion of progesterone; stimulation of endometrial growth and secretion
What is the greater vestibular glands Bartholins glands which are mucous glands like the bulbourethral glands of the male.
What are principal ECF ions Principal ECF ions Na+, CL-, Bicarbonate.
What are principal ICF ions Principal ICF ions are K+, Mg & phosphate and negatively charged proteins.
How does body react when PH is out of homeostasis We end up either acidotic (low pH) or alkalotic (high pH). It can be respiratory or metabolic. We compensate for changes either by respiratory or renal compensation by secreting or retaining H+ ions.
What buffer systems are used in the body to regulate acid/base balance Phosphate buffer system, protein buffer systems & carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
What is absolute determination for a C-section Placenta previa
What hormone produces milk Prolactin
What is Rickets Caused be insufficient calcium in the diet or by a vitamin D deficiency. Soft, weak bones.
What is Niacin Water-soluble vitamin. Diets that provide adequate protein usually okay. Preformed niacin is found in poultry, meat, fish.
ADH ADH levels control reabsorption or secretion in urinary system. Absence of ADH = large volume of dilute urine; Presence of ADH = small volume of concentrated urine. ADH creates special water channels enhancing rate of osmotic water movement. Higher the le
Collecting ducts cuboidal to columnar cells; reabsorption of water, sodium ions, secretion or reabsorption of bicarb ions or hydrogen ions
Anatomy of Urinary System Kidney – produces Urine; Ureters – transports urine; Urinary bladder – temporarily stores urine; Urethra – conducts urine to exterior
Aldosterone The ion pump and sodium channels used in reabsorption in DCT are controlled by Aldosterone (produced by adrenal cortex). Aldosterone stimulates the synthesis and incorporation of sodium ion pumps and sodium channels in cell membranes along the DCT and co
Fundus measurement Fundal height is generally defined as the distance from the top of the uterus to the pubic bone measured in centimeters. After the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, your fundal height measurement often matches the number of weeks you've been pregnant. For exam
Heterozygous If the homologous chromosomes carry different alleles, the individual is heterozygous.
Homozygous If both homologous chromosomes carry the same allele of a particular gene, the individual is homozygous.
Allele Genes coding for the same trait and found at the same locus on homologous chromosomes.
Genotype A person’s genetic makeup, or genes. Can’t be seen.
Phenotype Observable expression of the genotype.
Blood supply to kidney Renal artery  Segmental arteriesInterlobar arteriesArcuate arteries Interlobular arteries Afferent arterioles (In the nephron: Glomerulus Efferent arteriole (back out of kidney)  Peritubular capillaries)  Venules  Interlobular veins Arcuate ve
Angiotensin I Converted from the inactive protein angiotensin by renin, and then is converted to angiotensin II by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme)
Angiotensin II vasoconstrictor activated by renin.stimulat the reabsorp in DCT & collecting system; stimulates secretion of aldosterone (adrenals);CNS causes thirst,release of ADH. peripheral capillary causes vasoconst.of arterioles which raise arterial pressures
Calcitonin Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Calcitriol, and calcitonin maintain calcium homeostasis in ECF (extracellular fluid).
When do fingers separate There isn’t anything in the book, but an online webpage said about 13 weeks.
Golgi appartatus definition Membranous system close to the cell nucleus that packages protein secretions for export, packages enzymes into lysosomes for cellular use, and modifies proteins destined to become part of cellular membranes.
Dehydration causes/ compensation sweating, vomiting, inadequate water intake, diarrhea. promote water losses far in excess of electrolyte losses, so body fluids are concentrated, and NA ion concentrations become abnormally high). Homeostatic responses include ADH and renin secretion.
Macula densa DCT; The macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells form the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) which is an endocrine structure that secretes the hormone erythropoietin and the enzyme renin.
Glomerular capsule Double-walled cup at end of a renal tubule; encloses a glomerulus. Also called Bowman’s capsule.
Glomerulus Cluster of capillaries forming part of the nephron; forms filtrate.
Oxytocin Hormone secreted by hypothalamic cells that stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth and the ejection of milk during nursing.
Morula cells The mulberry-like solid mass of blastomeres resulting from cleavage in the early conceptus. After three days of cleavage, the pre-embryo is a morula. The morula typically reaches the uterus on day 4.
Created by: rivabard



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