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Brain Anatomy a&p

CNS Brain Anatomy

Arbor Vitae white myelineated tracks inside cerebellum
vermis Structure that connects right and left cerebellum
folia parallel elevated ridges on the cerebellum
Ascending tracts Sensory tract-always begin with "spina"
Descending tracts Motor Pathway-always end with "spinal"
Dorsal Horns Relay sensory information to the brain. Point toward the back of the body
Lateral Horns Relay reflex information. Point toward sides of body
ventral horns Relay voluntary information. Point toward front of body
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 31
Commissure where nerve fibers are crossing to opposite sides
Anterior median fissure Divide spinal cord into right and left sides
Conus medullaris Where the end of the spinal cord narrows to a point
Cauda equina Many strands that make up the spinal column after L1
Filum Terminale Band of connective tissue that attaches to the coccyx. Stabilizes the cauda equina
Occulomotor nerves Controls movement of eye from side to side. Controls size of pupil
Ophthalmic nerve Controls corneal reflex (blink)
Maxillary nerve Controls sensory information from upper lips and upper teeth
Mandibular nerve Controls sensory information from lower lips and lower teeth
Facial nerves Control muscles of expression, salivary and lacrimal glands
Vestibulochochlear nerves Relays information about hearing and balance
Glossopharyngeal nerves Controls swallowing
Vagus nerves Controls heart rate, breathing rate and digestive function
Accessory nerves turns head from side to side
Rootlets Directly enter or exit the spinal cord
Rami branches off a spinal nerve
Nerve plexus Multiple rami merge together and intertwine
Transverse fissure Gap between cerebellum and occipital lobe
Cerebellum Controls and programs well practiced behavior
Medulla Oblongata Controls swallowing, gag reflex, cough and sneeze reflexes. The last part of the brain before the spinal cord
Reticular formation Controls level of alertness. Located behind the pons
Pons Control heart rate, breathing rate and urinary reflex. Next to pituitary gland
2 Inferior Colliculi Control startle reflex
2 Superior Colliculi Control movement of the eyes
Corpora Quadrigemina 4 bumps in midbrain containing the Colliculi
Midbrain posterior side of brainstem
Optic chiasm Where right and left optic nerves cross. Just below hypothalamus
Pineal Gland Controls circadian rhythms (sleep cycles). Below corpus colosum
Hypothalamus Controls complex reflexes involved with homeostasis-body temperature, hunger and thirst. Empty area below the thalamus
Thalamus Edits all sensory information and routes it to the appropriate cortex. Right under choroid plexus
Choroid plexus group of blood vessels where CSF is made.
Fornix Communication pathway between hypothalamus and limbic system.
Septum pellucidum Wall between first and second ventricles. Below corpus colosum
Olfactory tract gathers sensory information about odors. At the base of the frontal lobes
Olfactory lobe Enlargement at the tip of the olfactory nerve
Cingulate gyrus Controls expression of emotion. Sits on top of corpus colosum
Limbic system Control emotional responses
Receptive Aphasia When you can't understand language
Expressive Aphasia Inability to produce speech
Wernicke's Area Responsible for interpreting speech
Broca's Area Responsible for production of speech. Controls muscles of tongue and lips
Occipital Lobes Where you become aware of visual information. Where a visual image is constructed
Lateral Sulcus Border between temporal lobe and both frontal and parietal lobes
Temporal lobes Where you become consciously aware of auditory information
Insula Where you are consciously aware of taste and smell
Post-central Gyrus Beginning of parietal lobe. Parallel to pre-central gyrus
Parietal lobes Where sensory and motor information is integrated
Central Sulcus Valley between fronal and parietal
Pre-central Gyrus Marks the end of the frontal lobe. All controlled voluntary actions come from here
Frontal lobes Decision making and problem solving take place here
Cerebral nuclei A cluster of nerve cell bodies
Cerebral white matter Contains myelinated axons
Cerebral cortex Outer edge of brain. Where all conscious experiences take place
Corpus Collosum Connects right and left hemispheres. Cerebrum sits on top of it
Longitudinal fissure Separates left from right brains
Fissure Deep indentation between gyri
Sulcus Shallow valleys betweem gyri
Gyrus Elevated area on surface of the brain
Ventricles Fluid filled chambers that help support and protect the brain
Pia Mater Innermost layer of meninges. Comes in contact with CNS
Arachnoid Middle layer of meninges. Hollow and filled with CSF
Dura Mater Outer most layer-comes in contact with bone
Meninges Connective tissue between bone and CNS, all around the spinal column and brain
Spinal Nerves Merger of dorsal and ventral roots, what exit the vertebrae
Created by: willowguns



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