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CH 04 - The Skull

Bone or Bone StructureDescription
Number of bones in the Cranium 8
Number of bones in the face 14
Number of bones associated with the skull 7
Frontal Anterior to the parietal bones
Parietal Paired bones on the superior portion of the skull
Zygomatic Lateral to the maxillary bone  
Maxillary It extends from the nasal bones to the upper teeth.  
Nasal Paired bones making up the bridge of the nose. Each bone fuses with the frontal bone and the maxillary bone.  
Mandible Part of this bone protrudes to the zygomatic but is not attached to the zygomatic.  
Vomer Inferior bone of the nasal septum.
Anterior nasal spine Anterior to the vomer -- A pointy portion of the maxillary bone.
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid Superior portion of the nasal septum
Nasal conchae Lateral to the nasal septum  
Sphenoid Back wall of the eye-socket
Ethmoid Medial wall of the eye-socket -- posterior to the lacrimal bone.
Lacrimal Medial wall of the eye-socket -- anterior to the ethmoid bone.
Maxillary Makes up a portion of the floor of the eye-socket.
Zygomatic Makes up a portion of the lateral wall of the eye-socket.
Frontal Makes up a portion of the roof of the eye-socket.
Occipital Posterior bone of the skull
Temporal Inferior to the parietal bone and the posterior to a portion of the sphenoid bone.  
Sphenoid Anterior to the temporal and superior to the zygomatic  
Mastoid process An inferior bulge on the temporal bone. It is located slightly posterior to the ear canal.
External Auditory Canal Anterior to the mastoid process and posterior to the joint of the jaw.  
Styloid process Pointy projection on the inferior portion of the temporal bone.  
Zygomatic process An extension of the zygomatic bone -- It is a process of the temporal bone that connects the zygomatic bone.
Foramen magnum Large hole located on the inferior portion of the skull.
Occipital The foramen magnum is located on this bone.  
Occipital condyles Bulges located slightly lateral to the foramen magnum
Anterior palatine Anterior portion of the roof of the mouth. This is also referred to as the palatine bone of the maxilla.
Posterior palatine Posterior to the anterior palatine. This is also referred to as the palatine bone.  
Basioccipital The bony "bridge" that extends anteriorly and superiorly from the foramen magnum.
Hypophyseal fossa The deep fossa located in the "middle" of the sphenoid bone.
Dorsum sella The posterior border of the hypophyseal fossa.
Optic Groove The anterior border of the hypophyseal fossa.
Sella turcica A general region of the sphenoid bone that consists of the dorsum sella, hypophyseal fossa, and the optic groove.
Christa galli A bony projection located toward the anterior portion of the frontal bone. This is a superior extension of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid.  
Cribriform plate The portion of the ethmoid bone that protrudes lateral to the crista galli.  
Petrous portion of the temporal bone A long ridge lateral to the foramen magnum. It is located on the temporal bone.
Supraorbital foramen Superior to the orbit of the eye -- located on the frontal bone.
Infraorbital foramen Inferior to the orbit of the eye -- located on the maxillary bone.  
Mental foramen Lateral to the mental protuberance.  
Optic foramen Located at the back of the eye-socket, slightly medial.
Superior orbital fissure These are two long slits located at the back of the eye-sockets. This the superior slit.  
Inferior orbital fissure There are two long slits located at the back of the eye-socket. This is the inferior slit.
Lacrimal foramen Located at the distal portion of the lacrimal bone.
Foramen magnum The largest foramen of the skull
Foramen lacerum Lateral to the basioccipital
Foramen ovale Slightly lateral to the froamen lacerum  
Foramen Spinosum Slightly posterior to the foramen ovale  
Carotid canal Posterior to the foramen spinsosum
Jugular foramen Posterior to the carotid canal
Condyloid foramen Located at the posterior edge of the occipital condyles.
Hypoglossal foramen (canal) Passing what appears to be underneath, but is actually superior to, the occipital condyle
Anterior palatine foramen Located at the anterior end of the anterior palatine and posterior to the incisor teeth.  
Greater palatine foramen Located at the lateral edge on the posterior palatine.
Foramen magnum The largest hole in the occipital bone
Foramen lacerum Lateral to the dorsum sella region
Carotid foramen (canal) Medial to the foramen ovale  
Internal acoustic canal From the foramen spinosum. this is located over the pertous ridge and is the first hole inferior from the tip of the ridge.  
Jugular foramen Inferior to the internal acoustic canal  
Foramen rotundum   Lateral and anterior to the foramen lacerum  
Superior orbital fissure   Anterior to the foramen rotundum  
Olfactory foramina Located on the cribriform plate
Optic foramen Located at the lateral edges of the optic groove.
Sagittal suture Connects the two parietal bones together.
Coronal suture Connects the parietal bones with the frontal bone.
Lanboidal suture Connects the parietal bones with the occipital bone.
Squamosal suture   Connects a parietal bone with a temporal bone.  
Mandibular condyle The rounded portion that forms part of the hinge of the hinge joint.
Mandibular fossa The depression portion that forms part of the hinge of the hinge joint. This is located on the temporal bone.
Mandibular notch Anterior to the mandibular condyle  
Coronoid process A pointy process that is anterior to the mandibular notch  
Ramus The long portion that extends inferiorly from the mandibular notch.  
Angle of the mandible The posterior edge of the mandible located inferior to the mandibular notch
Body The main portion of the mandible
Mental protuberance Located in the area of the center "dimple" of the chin. This area connects the two halves of the mandible together.
Alveolar process Tooth sockets on the mandible and also on the maxillary bone.  
Number of teeth an adult will have, including "wisdom" teeth 32
Number of teeth adults will have if their "wisdom" teeth are removed 28
"wisdom" teeth The teeth that are most posterior molars of the mandible and maxillary bone.
Incisors The four front teeth. These are identified as left medial, left lateral, right medial, and right lateral. There are four per jaw
Cuspids Located lateral to the lateral incisor. There are two per jaw.
Bicuspids Located lateral and posterior to the cuspid. There are four per jaw.
Molars Located posterior to the bicuspids. There are six per jaw.
Wormian bone A bone that lies on a suture.
Sagittal suture This extends from the coronal suture to the lamboidal suture.
Calvaria Name for the two parietal bones, frontal bone, and occipital bone, which is also called the skullcap.
Occipital condyles These attach to the first vertebral bone of the vertebral column.
Foramen magnum The spinal cord passes through this.
Jugular foramen The jugular vein passes through this structure while carrying blood from the brain to the heart.  
Hypoglossal foramen   Nerves that control the tongue pass through this structure.  
Cranial blood vessels   This causes grooves on the inside lining of the skull bone.  
Frontal sinuses   These are located on the anterior portion of the frontal bone.  
Lacrimal foramen The area where tears will flow from the eye into the nasal cavity.
Ossicles of the ear The pertous portion of the temporal bone encloses this.
Carotid foramen (canal) The carotid artery that carries blood from the heart to the brain passes through this.
Carotid foramen (canal) This joins with the foramen lacerum.
Sphenoid bone There is only one of this bone and it extends from the right lateral edge of the skull to the left lateral edge.
Sphenoid bone This consists of the sella turcica.
Hypophyseal fossa This structure of the sella turcica protects the pituitary gland.
Sella turcica This means Turkish saddle.
Dorsum sella Located in the back of the saddle
Optic groove Located in the fromt of the saddle.
Optic foramen The optic nerves from the eyes pass through this structure and cross each other at the optic groove.
Optic chiasm Formed by the optic nerves crossing at the optic groove.
Ethmoid bone Consists of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid, cribriform plate, and crista galli.
Zygomatic arch This is made up of the process that extends from the temporal bone to the zygomatic bone. Jaw muscles used for chewing are attached to this process.
Temporal mandibular joint Formation where the temporal bone has the mandibular fossa of which the mandibular condyle attaches.
Mastoid process of the temporal bone Huge neck muscles attach to it.
Anterior palatine Forms a midsagittal suture. Will cause cleft palate if the suture fails to form.
Mylohyoid line This forms on the medial side of the mandible and has soft tissue attached to it.
Coronoid process The point of attachment for a muscle that closes the jaw.
Olfactory foramina Olfactory nerves from the nose pass through this portion of the cribriform plate.
Crista galli The anterior portion of the brain attaches to this.
Nasal conchae This will cause inhaled air to become turbulent thus causing the air to warm up before entering the lungs.
Created by: phule



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