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Phleb Tech Spec 6

From Phlebotomy Technician Specialist

oliguria diminished urination
anuria absence of urine formation
uremia presence of urea and excess waste products in the blood
Skeleton is divided into two parts: Axial--skull, spine, ribs, sternum and hyoid bone and Appendicular: upper and lower extremities
smooth muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and are: involuntary. Walls of internal organs, vessels
ATP Adenosine triphosphate-manufactured in the mitochondria of cells, produces energy for muscle contraction which is released inthe form of heat.
All myos whether skeletal, cardial or smoooth, have 4 common characteristics: excitability, extensibility and elasticity
Central Nervous system: brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system all other nerves. Divided into 2 divisions: Efferent or motor division-carry info FROM the CNS TO the organs, glands, myos and Afferent or information carrying to the CNS.
Atria: heart's upper 2 chambers. Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body, left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
Ventricles: Lower 2 chambers of the heart. Pumping chambers. Right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body.
largest artery aorta
veins carry: deoxygenated blood TOWARD the heart. 1 exception is the pulmonary vein, which carris oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart.
Blood in the capillaries is a mix of: venous and arterial blood
The internal opening of a vein: lumen
arteries: carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body's tissues, with 1 exception: the pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
The average adult has how much blood? 4-5 qts.
Blood is composed of plasma and cellular elements. How much of it is plasma? 55% It is approx. 92% water. The remaining 8% contains the following 7 substances called solutes: proteins, gases, nutrients, electrolyes, hormones, vitamins, enzymes, and metabolic waste products.
What 3 proteins are found in blood plasma? Fibrogen, albumin, globulin
Fibrogen necessary for blood clotting
Albumin product of the liver. Helps to maintain the blood's osmotic pressure and volume
Globulin formed in the liver and also the lymphatic system. These proteins, called prothrombins, help blood to coagulate
Name the blood gases: Oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are carried in blood plasma
The blood gases are carried in what bodily fluid? Plasma
Where are electrolytes like sodium and potassium, calcium and magnesium found? In plasma
Plasma carries metabolic waste products to: the excretory organs
The heart pumps bood to the whole body through: veins, capillaries and arteries
Electrolytes: sodium, potasium, magnesium are found in plasma
Anticoagulant is mixed with whole blood for a minimum of 2 minutes. How soon must the testing occur? within an hour of collection
In a coagulation test, using plasma, and an added anticoagulant. It seperates into 3 layers. What are they? top layer is a clear straw-like fluid called plasma. Middle layer, the buffy coat, contains WBC and Thrombocytes and the bottom is RBC.
Cellular Elments are also called: formed elements
Cellular or Formed elements are: erthrocytes (RBC, leukocytes (WBC) and Thrombocytes (Platelets)
Main job of Erythrocytes or RBC carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells and carry carbon dioxide from the cells back to the lungs.
Main job of leukocytes: to destroy pathogens
Cells that contain granules in the cytoplasm are called: granulocytes
Cells that do not have granuals are called: agranulocytes
Phagocytosis: pathogen is surrounded and engulfed by the wbc and eaten.
Phagocytosis: the ingestion of foreign substnace or other particules, such as worn-out cells, by certain white blood cells
Neutrophils: Approx. 65% of all WBC are these. May increase in patients with bacterial infections.
Eosinophils: 3% of the total WBC and are referred to as "Eos". Increase in allergic reactions and in parasitic infestations.
Basophils: comprise only 1% of the total WBC. "Basos" release histamine and heparin and help in the inflammatory process.
Monocytes: The largest of the WBC.
Lymphocytes: 15 to 30% of the total WBC. Two types: T-lymphocytes (T-cells) and B-lyphocytes (B-cells)
T-lymphocytes or T-cells do what? Directly attack infected cells
B-lymphocytes (B-cells) do what? Produce antibodies. Reside mainly in the lymphatic tissue and play a major role in immunity.
Thromboycytes do what? Better known as platelets. They are the first on the scene at the site of an injury and are essential to the coagulation of the blood.
When a blood vessel is injured, the process whereby blood coagulates and bleeding stops is called: hemostasis
What are the 4 major blood types: A, B, AB and O
Blood types are determined by the presence or abcense of: one of two blood proteins, called agglutinogens or antigens, located on the surface of red blood cells
People who have type A blood have the ___ antigen on the surface of their RBC's A
People with type B blood have the ___ antigen on the surface of their RBC's. B
People with AB blood have the aintigen __ on the surface of their RBC's AB
People with O blood have ___ neither A nor B antigen on the surface of their RBC's
Protein present in the plasma of a person's blood referred to as Agglutin or antibody
A person with type A blood has ___ antibodies. B
A person with type AB blood as ___ antibodies. No
A person with type O blood has ___ antibodies. Both A and B
Because type O blood lacks ____ it can be donated to all 4 blood types. antigens
Type O blood is called the ____ donor. universal
Type AB blood lacks ___ in its plasma, so it cannot agglutinate the red blood ceels of any donor. Therefore, type AB blood is the universal _____. Recipient.
Agglutinate: to clump or cause to clump, as bacteria or blood platelets.
A test called ________ is performed prior to a blood transfusion or surgery. type and crossmatch
The study of the structure of an organism and the relationship of that organism to other parts of the body is the study of: anatomy
____ is the study of physical and chemical reactions taking place on a cellular level, resulting in the growth, repair, energy release and use of food by the body's cells. Metabolism
The ___ is the basic unit of structure and function of all life an dis responsible for all activites of the body. Cell
The ___ is located just below the diaphragm in the upper left portion of the abdomen and is divided into three sections: the fundus, body, and pyloric sphincter STOMACH
RUQ right upper quadrant
LUQ left upper quadrant
LLQ Left lower quadrant
LUQ Left upper quadrant
____ has the ability to bind oxygen directly to a red blood cell, increasing its oxygen carry capacity by 70% hemoglobin
adult has approx. 5,000 to 10,000 ___ per cubic Ml of blood WBC's
The myelin sheath is composed of a fatty substance containing _____, which protects the axon. Schwann cells
The human adult body contains ____ bones. 206
A metabolic disorder and common condition of aging involving loss of nutrients and diminishing bone density is: Osterperosis
A decrease in size or a wasting away of muscle tissue cause by lack of activity is called: atrophy
The communication and coordination of all body functions is performed by the ___ system. CNS-central nervous system
The specific, highly specialized cells of the nervous system are called ___ neurons
The first section of the small intestine is: Duodenum. The section of the small ints. into which the pancreatic duct and common bile duct empty.
The muscle for breathing is called: smooth involuntary muscle-lungs
The medical term for muscle pain is: myofascial pain
The outermost layer of the skin is called: epidermis
The sweat glands are also called: sodoriferous
The major function of the endocrine glands is to secrete: hormones directly into the bloodstream
A condition called ___ develops in early infancy and is characterized by the lack of mental and physical growth, resulting in mental retardation and malformation. Cretinism
The ___ are two bean-shaped organs situated at the dorsal aspect of the abdominal cavity. kidneys
The need to void can be felt when the bladder contains approx. ___ mL of urine. 500 mL or 1 pint
_____ is a straw-colored fluid found surrounding the tissue cells of the body. lymph
The ___ is located in the upper anterior part of the thorax. Its main function is to produce lymphocytes or T-cells. The thyus gland.
The male gametes are spermatozoa; the female gametesa are called: Ova
In a male, the ____ is located in front of the rectum, just under the urinary bladder surrounding the opeing of the urethra. Prostate gland
Bronchioles end in small, saclike clusters called: alveoli
The big or great toe is on the ___ side of the foot. Medial
____ is a living substance and can only be found within a cell. Cytoplasm
The body system that supports the body and protects its internal organs is the ____ system. Skeletal
Bones are made up of hard, dense tissue and are covered by a membrane called the ____. Periosteum
____ comprises nearly half of the body's weight. Muscles
Cardiac muscle is_____ and _____. Striated and involuntary
The ___ is/are a protective membranous covering that protects both the brain and spinal cord: meninges
The ___ nervous system conducts impulses from the CNS to the consciously controlled skeletal muscles: somatic
A seizure disorder: Epilspsy
A contagious fungal infection affecting the superficial layers of the skin: Athletes foot
Inflammation of the gallbladder: Cholecystitis
The function of the ___ system is to filter waste products and then secrete the waste products: urinary
___ is a form of cancer of the lymph nodes. Hodgkin's disease
A very painful bacterial infection of the hair follicles or sebaceous glands usually caused by a staphylococcal organism is called : Carbuncle
The liver, gallbladder and pancreas are considered accesory organs of the ____ system. Digestive system
A condition caused by hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex symptoms including bronzing of the skin, decreased levels of blood glucose, fatigue, weight loss, and decreased sodium: Addison's disease
A condition caused by decreased secretion of insulin from the islets of Langerhans cells of the epancreas: diabetes mellitus
Inflammation of the kidney tissue and the renal pelvis is called: Pyelonephritis
The _____ system works hand in hand with the circulatory system by acting as an intermediary between the blood in the capillaries and the tissues of the body: lymphatic
The organ(s) of the female reproductive system which is hollow, thick-walled, pear shaped and highly muscular is/are the _____. Uterus
The leading cause of cancer death in women is: Ovarian
The type of respiration that occurs inside a cell is called: Cellular respiration
The adult lungs hold approx. ______ liters of air, depending on the activity of the individual: 3-4
A patient experiencing _____ will have severe chest pain, which may radiate down the left arm, caused by a lack of O2 to the heart tissues: Angina pectoritis
The main function of WBC's is to destroy pathogens. This is accomplished by: Phagocytosis
Created by: wildmindgirl