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A&PII - Ch 19

Blood Vessels

arteries, veins, capillaries three major types of blood vessels
blood vessels that conduct blood away from the heart and into the circulation arteries
blood vessels that return blood toward the heart from the circulation veins
have intimate contact with tissue cells & directly serve cellular needs capillaries
cavity inside a tube, blood vessel, or hollow organ lumen
single layer of simple squamous cells that line lumen of all vessels endothelium
innermost tunic of arteries & veins tunica intima
middle tunic of arteries & veins tunica media
external tunic of arteries & veins tunica externa
tunica externa can also be referred to as tunica __ adventitia
tunica intima is the tunic that is in intimate contact with blood in lumen
tunica intima endothelium is made up of simple squamous epithelium
in vessels larger that 1 mm diameter __ __ consisting of basement membrane & loose connective tissue supports endothelium subendothelial layer
tunica media is mostly made up of circularly arranged smooth muscle cells & sheets of elastin
activity of muscles in tunica media is regulated by sympathetic __ __ fibers of autonomic nervous system & battery of chemicals vasomotor nerve
reduction in lumen diameter as smooth muscle contracts vasoconstriction
increase in lumen diameter as smooth muscle relaxes vasodilation
in larger vessels, system of tiny blood vessels that nourish more external tissues of blood vessel wall vasa vasorum
vasa vasorum means vessels of the vessels
thick-walled arteries near heart; aorta & major branches elastic arteries
elastic arteries range in size from 2.5 to 1 cm
because elastic arteries have larger lumens it makes them __ __ that conduct blood from heart to medium-sized arteries low-resistance
elastic arteries sometimes referred to as conducting arteries
in elastic arteries, tunica __ contains most elastin media
elastic arteries give way to __ arteries muscular
deliver blood to specific body organs & account for most of named arteries muscular/distributing arteries
muscular/distributing arteries internal diameter ranges from 1 cm to 0.3 mm
muscular arteries have __ tunica media of all vessels thickest
muscular arteries are more active in __ & less __ vasoconstriction; distensible
in muscular arteries there is a(n) __ __ on each face of tunica media elastic lamina
smallest of arteries arterioles
arterioles have lumen diameter ranging from 0.3 mm to 10 microns
larger arterioles have __ tunics three
larger arterioles tunica media is chiefly __ __ with few scattered elastic fibers smooth muscle
smaller arterioles leading to capillary beds are __ __ of smooth muscle cells spiraling around endothelial lining single layer
smallest of the blood vessels and the sites of exchange between the blood and tissue cells capillaries
capillaries walls consist of just thin tunica __ intima
spider-shaped, smooth muscle-like cells that stabilize capillary wall & help control capillary permeability pericytes
pericytes are located at __ __ along outer surface of some capillaries strategic locations
average capillary length 1 mm
average capillary lumen diameter is 8-10 microns
capillaries abundant in skin & muscles; most common; continuous, endothelial cells provide uninterrupted lining adjacent cells joined laterally by tight junctions continuous capillaries
lateral joining of continuous capillaries with adjacent cells tight junctions
incomplete/gaps of unjoined membrane in tight junctions, just larger enough to allow limited passage of fluids & small solutes intercellular clefts
endothelial cell cytoplasm, of continuous capillaries contain numerous __ __ that ferry fluids across capillary wall pinocytotic vesicles
tight junctions of continuous capillaries are complete & extend around entire perimeter of endothelial cells in brain constituting structural basis of blood-brain barrier
some of endothelial cells are riddled with oval pores usually covered by delicate membrane/diaphragm & are much more permeable to fluids & small solutes fenestrated capillaries
fenestrated capillaries are found wherever __ __ absorption/filtrate formation occurs active capillary
aorta and its major branches; withstand large blood pressure fluctuations elastic arteries
__ capillaries are found in small intestines,endocrine glands, kidneys fenestrated
leaky, fenestrated; allow larger molecules (proteins), blood cells to pass; blood flow sluggish sinusoids
sinusoids can be found in liver, bone marrow, spleen
formed when capillaries unite venules
smallest venules; porous; allow fluid & WBCs to pass from the blood to tissues postcapillary venules
venules join to form veins
veins are composed of 3 tunics, with a __ tunica media & __ tunica externa thin; thick
veins are __ __, or capacitance vessels, that contain 65% of blood blood reservoirs
veins have __ blood pressure lower
PPT p7
Created by: lfrancois



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