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HAI- Chpt 15 Tortora

Sensory, Motor and Integrative Systems

Concept or WordDefinition
Perception Conscious awareness and the interpretation of meaning of sensations.
Sensory modality Unique type of sensation (i.e.-touch, pain, vision or hearing)
General senses Somatic senses and visceral senses
Special senses Sensory modalites of smell, taste, hearing and equilibrium.
Sensory receptor Specialized cell or dendrites of of a sensory neuron.
Transduce - Convert (energy)
Free nerve endings bare dendrites, lack any structural specializations that can be seen under a light microscope.
Free nerve ending receptors Receptors for pain, thermal, tickle, itch and some touch.
Encapsulated nerve ending receptors Dendrites are enclosed in a connective tissue capsule that has a distictive microscopic structure- i.e. Lamellated (pacincian) corpuscles
Separate cells (synapse with 1st order sensory neurons) Hair cells (hearing, equilibrium) gustatory receptors (taste buds)
Photoreceptors Specialized separate cells for vision.
Exterceptors At or near body surface.
Interoceptors Located in blood vessels, visceral organs and nervous system.
Proprioceptors Located in muscles, tendons, joints and inner ear.
Exterceptors Provide info about external enviroment, convey visual, smell, taste, touch, pressure, vibration, therman and pain sensations.
Interceptors Provide info about internal enviroment, impulses produced usually are not consciously perceived but occasinally may be felt as pressure or pain.
Proprioceptors Provide info about body position, muscle length, tension, position and motion of joints and equilibrium.
Mechanocreceptors Detect mechanical pressure.
Mechanocreceptors Provide sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, proprioceptino, hearing and equilibrium
Mechanocreceptors Monitor stretching of blood vessels and internal organs.
Thermoreceptors Detect changes in temperature.
Nociceptors Respond to stimuli resulting from physical or chemical damage to tissue.
Photoreceptors Detect light that strikes the retina of the eye
Chemoreceptors Detect chems in mouth (taste)
Osmoreceptors Sense the osmotic pressure of body fluids.
Primary motor area Located in the precentral gyrus, this is hte major control region of the cerebral cortex for initiation of voluntary movements.
Pyramidal pathways Direct pathways conveying impulses from the cortex to the spinal cord.
Lateral corticospinal tracts contain motor neurons that control skilled movements of the hands and feet.
Extrapyramidal pathways tracts include rubrospinal, tectospinal, vestibulospinal, lateral reticulospinal, and medial reticulospinal.
Basal ganglia Contain neurons that help initiate and terminate movements; can supress unwanted movements; influence muscle tone.
Anteriolateral (spinothalamic) pathways Mainly carry pain and temperature impulses.
Spinocerebellar pathways The major routes relaying proprioceptive input to the cerebellum; critical for posture, balance and coordination of skilled movements.
Posterior column Include the gracile fasciculus and cuneate fasciculus
Anterior corticospinal tracts Contain motor neurons that coordinate movements of hte axial skeleton.
Corticobulbar pathways Contain Axons that convey impusles for precise, voluntary movements of eyes, tongue, and neck, plus chewing, facial expression, and speech.
Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathways Convey sensations of fine touch, stereognosis, proprioception and weight discrimination to the cerebral cortex
Muscle spindles Specialized groupings of muscle fibers interspersed along regular skeletal muscle fibers and oriented parallel to them; monitor changes in teh length of a skeletal muscle.
Tendon organs Inform CNS about changes in muscle tension
Nociceptors Free nerve ending receptors for pain.
Meissner corpuscles Encapsulated receptors for touch located in teh dermal papillae; found in hairless skin, eyelids, tip of the tongue and lips.
Pacinian corpuscles Lamellated corpuscles that detect pressure
Ruffini corpuscles Lamellated corpuscles that detect pressure.
Cold receptors Located int eh stratum basale and activated by low temperatures
Warm receptors Located in teh dermis and activated by high temperatures.
Joint kinesthetic receptors Found within and around the articular capsules of snovial joitns; respond to pressure and acceleration and deceleration of joints.
Merkel discs Type I cutaneous mechanoreceptors that function in fine touch.
Created by: barbvajen