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Ch 6 Heart

Ch 6

Mediastinum area between lungs containing heart, aorta, venae cavae, esophagus and trachea
sternum long, flat bone forming center of anterior wall of chest
diaphoresis sweat, perspiration, or sweaty
endocardium connective tissue lining inside of heart
myocardium cardio muscle cells that contract
epicardium outer single layer of cells overlaying a then later of connective tissue
pericardium double-layered connective tissue sac surrounds/protects heart
ischemia lack of blood supply to tissue
infraction sudden blockage or artery
infract area of cell death resulting from infraction
coronary circulation blood vessels supplying the heart muscle
aorta main trunk of systemic arterial system
atrium chamber where blood enters heart on both right and left sides
bicuspid having 2 points (bicuspid heart valve has 2 flaps)
-cusp point
interatrial between atria of heart
interventrical (IV) between ventricles of heart
mitral "turban"; shaped like headdress of Catholic bishop
Septum thin wall dividing 2 cavities
tricuspid having 3 points
ventricle "small belly" chamber of heart (pumps blood) or cavity in brain (produces cerebrospinal fluid)
atrial systole atria contract
ventricular diastole ventricles relax
arrhythmia heart rhythm is abnormal
atrioventricular (AV) pertaining to atrium and ventricle
diastole "dilation" of heart cavities when filling with blood
dysrhythmia abnormal heart rhythm
murmur "low voice"; abnormal heart sound when valve opens/closes
sinoatrial (SA) node center of modified cardiamuscle fibers in wall of right atrium that acts as pacemaker for heart rhythm
sinum rhythm normal (optimal) heart rhythm arising from sinoatrial node
systole contraction of heart muscle
atrial fibrillation (A Fib) 2 atria quiver rather than contract correctly to pump blood. Causes blood to pool in atria and may clot
Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach) Rapid heartbeat occurring in ventricles
Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) extra impulses arise from ventricle
ventricular fibrillation (V-fib) Ventricles lose control, quivering, not pumping
Heart block interference in cardiac electrical conduction prevents atria's contractions from coordinating with ventricles contractions
Palpitations rapid/irregular heartbeat brought on by exercise, anxiety, or caffeine
automatic external defibrillators (AED) electric shock stops heart temporarily so normal contraction rhythm can resume
implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) senses abnormal rhythms same as AED
cardioversion defibrillation
stenosis narrowed/constricted
incompetence/insufficiency heart valve cannot fully close; allowing blood to leak or regurgitate
mitral valve stenosis following rheumatic fever. Blood cant flow freely through valve left atrium becomes dilated. Chronic heart failure results.
mitral valve prolapse cusps of valve bulge back into left atrium when left ventricle contracts
aortic valve stenosis common in elderly when valve becomes calcified due to atherosclerosis. Blood flow into systemic circulation diminished--dizzy faint. Left ventricle dilates, hypertrophies, and ultimately fails
aortic valve incompetence left ventricle unable to coupe with excess volume of blood and fails
Aortic valve replacement (tissue valves) tissue valves that can come from a pig or cow human cadaver (dead person), or patient's own pericardium.
Endocarditis inflammation of heart's lining
pericarditis inflammation of covering of heart
exudate (pericardial effusion) leads to life-threatening condition--cardiac tamponade Fluid passed out of tissue or capillaries as result of inflammation or injury
Cardiomegaly heart enlargement
cor pulmonale right-sided heart failure arising from chronic lung disease
coronary thrombosis platelet clumping occurs on erosclerotic plaque and form blood clot
atherosclerosis arteries hardening
occlude "close"; close, plug,completely obstruct
cardiogenic shock heart fails to pump blood through bodys organs and tissues
anoxia lack of oxygen in body tissues
asystole no heartbeat
angina pectoris pain in chest on exertion is first symptom of reduced oxygen supply to myocardium.
circulatory shock cardiac output is insufficient to meet body's metabolic needs
hypovolemic shock loss of blood volume due to excessive bleeding or dehydration
idiopathic unknown
atrial septal defect hole in interatrial septum
venticular septal defect gap in interventricular septum
patent ductus arteriosus arises from failure of ductus atterious to close within 24 hrs of birth
coarctatiaon of aorta narrowing of aorta shortly after artery to left arm branches from aorta
tetralogy of fallot syndrome in which four congenital heart defects force blood away from lungs
lipid profile determines risk of CAD: total cholestoral, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides
Created by: cutekelly89