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A&P231 lab 2 exam

Anatomy Lab

QuestionAnswer
Parathyroid Hormone hormone acts to stimulate osteoclast activity and thus increase bone resorption
Osteoclast cells primarily responsible for bone resorption
Functions of skeletal system Support Movement Protection Mineral storage Fat(lipid) storage Blood cell formation
Osteoblasts responsible for synthesizing the organic component of bone matrix
Divisions of the skeleton Axial (skull, spinal cord, ribcage) Appendicular (pectoral girdle & limbs, pelvic girdle & limbs)
Long bone Primarily compact bone Longer than wide (ex: limbs)
Short bone Mostly spongy bone Cube shape (ex: wrist and ankles)
Flat bone Thin flat spongy bone sandwiched between compact bone [=] (ex: skull, ribs)
Sesamoid bone Short bones formed in tendons (ex: patella; knee cap)
Wormian bone Tiny bones in sutures between major cranial bones (sutural bones)
Irregular bones does not fit into any other category (ex: vertebrae)
Tuberosity (bone marking term) large rounded projections (site of muscle & ligament attachment)
Trochanter (bone marking term) Only on femer; large blunt surface (site of muscle & ligament attachment)
Spine (bone marking term) Sharp slender pointed projection (site of muscle & ligament attachment)
Head (bone marking term) Bony extension on narrow neck (helps form joints)
Facet (bone marking term) smooth nearly flat articular surface (helps form joints)
Fossa (bone marking term) Basin like depression (socket) (Depression & opening allows BV & nerve pass through)
Foramen (bone marking term) Round or oval opening through a bone (Depression & opening allows BV & nerve pass through)
Periosteum Membrane on the outer surface of all bones
Endosteum Membrane that lines the inner surface of all bones.
Yellow bone marrow Inside bone cavity (fat storage)
Red bone marrow In spongy bone produces red blood cells
Epiphyseal Plate Growth plate.
Articular cartilage On articulating joint surfaces
Diaphysis middle section of long bone
Epiphysis Rounded end of long bone
Proximal epiphysis Rounded end of long bone closer to trunk
Distal Epiphysis Rounded end of long bone farther from trunk.
Sharpeys fibers matrix of connective tissue connect the periosteum to bone.
Osteoblasts Bone forming cells (outer bone surface)
Osteoclasts bone destroying cells (Inner bone; medullary cavity)
Costal Cartilage type; area Type: Hyaline cartilage area: end of ribs (costal-sternal junction)
Laryngeal cartilage type; area Type: Hyaline cartilage area: Around larynx (voice box) for protection
Tracheal cartilage type; area Type: Hyaline cartilage area: Rings forming wall fo trachea
Bronchial cartilage type; area Type: Hyaline cartilage area: In the bronchi of the respiratory system
Nasal cartilage type; area Type: Hyaline cartilage area: at the tip/end of the nose (externally)
Intervertebral discs type; area Type: Fibrocartilage area: Found between vertebrae (seperates & cushions)
Perichondrium Structure & function Dense irregular connective tissue Covers cartilage Fx: brace to resist distortion of cartilage, aids rowth and repair of cartilage.
Name 4 sutures of the skull Coronal suture Sagittal suture Squamous suture Lambdoid suture
Sagittal suture connects which bones? Midline suture point of 2 parietal ones
Coronal suture connects which bones? Connects Frontal bone to both left and right parietal bones
Squamous suture connects which bones? Temporal to Parietal bones
Lambdoid suture connects which bones? Occipital bone to the left and right parietal bones
Name the 8 bones that make up the cranium. Frontal bone Left Parietal bone Right Parietal bone Left Temporal bone Right Temporal bone Occipital bone Sphenoid bone Ethmoid bone
Two functions of sinuses Lighten the skull Resonance chamber for speech
What is the orbit? Eye socket
What tow bones form the nasal septum? Posterior: Ethmoid bone (perpendicular plate) and vomer bone Anterior: (optional) septal cartilage
What bones form the cheekbone? Zygomatic bone and lateral wings of the maxilla
Why is the sphenoid bone called the keystone of the cranial floor? It articulates (as a central wedge) with ALL other cranial bones
What structure is found in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone? Pituitary Gland
What passes through the holes of the cribiform plate? Olfactory Nerve I fibers
Name the bone: Forehead bone Frontal bone
Name the bone: Lower Jaw Mandible
Name the bone: Bridge of the nose Nasal bones
Name the bone: Much of the lateral and superior cranium Parietal bone (L&R)
Name the bone: Contains the foremen Magnum Occipital bone
Name the bone: Cribiform plate Ethmoid bone
Name the bone: Optic foraamen Sphenoid (lesser wing)
Name the bone: Mental Foramen Mandible
Name the bone: supraorbital foramen frontal bone
Name the bone: styloid process temportal bone
Name the bone:(2) Jugular foramen articulation of temporal and occipital
Name the bone: 1(3) bones of the middle ear Ossicles (stapes, incus, malleus)
Name the bone: Crista galli ethmoid bone
Name the bone: (2) alveolar process bearing teeth Maxilla & mandible
Name the bone: Condyles articulate with the atlas Occipital condyles
Name the bone: Mastoid process Temporal bone
Name the bone: Carotid canal Temporal bone
Name the bone: Internal acoustic meatus Temporal bone
Name the bone: Mandibular fossa On the Temporal bone
Name the bone: Greater and lesser wings Sphenoid bone
Name the bone: Zygomatic process Temporal bone
Name the bone: External auditory meatus Temporal bone
Name the bone: Point of tongue muscle attachment Temporal bone (specifically styloid & mastoid processes; hyoid also serves as tongue attachment)
How many vertebrae make up the human spine? 33 individual bones 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal. Only the top 24 bones are moveable; the vertebrae of the sacrum and coccyx are fused.
Name the Three regions of vertebra. Cervical Thoracic Lumbar
How many vertebra in the Cervical Region? 7 cervical vertebrae Including axis & atlas (C1-C7)
How many Lumbar vertebra? The five lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5. These vertebrae are much larger in size for their weight-bearing function.
How many Thoracic vertebra? The 12 thoracic vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12. The range of motion in the thoracic spine is limited.
What kind of tissue composes the intervertebral discs? Fibrocartilage
Describe Lordosis Swayback, extension of the lumbar region
Describe Kyphosis Hunchback distension of the thoracic vertebra
Describe scoliosis When the spine curves laterally away from the medial line
What are the major components of the thorax? (excluding spinal column) Ribs Sternum
What is a true rib? A true rib has its own costal cartilage attachment to the sternum.
What is a false rib? A false rib does not directly attach to the sternum. It either attaches indirectly or not at all.
Name the fontanels of the baby skull. Anterior fontanel Mastoid Fontanel Posterior fontanel Sphenoidal fontanel
Identify vertebral structure/region: . Odentoid process or dens Axis
Identify vertebral structure/region: . Spinous process points downward. Thoracic vertebra
Identify vertebral structure/region: .Massive, weight sustaining Lumbar vertebra
Identify vertebral structure/region: .Tail Bone Coccyx
Identify vertebral structure/region: .superior articular facets are turned medially Lumbar vertebra
Identify vertebral structure/region: .Spinous process hatchet shaped Lumbar vertebra
Identify vertebral structure/region: .Facet for tubercle of rib on transverse process Thoracic vertebra
Identify vertebral structure/region: .Superior articular facets are flat Cervical vertebra
Identify vertebral structure/region: .bifurcated spinous process Cervical vertebra
Identify vertebral structure/region: . No body Atlas
Identify vertebral structure/region: .Inferior articular facets are turned laterally Lumbar vertebra
Identify vertebral structure/region: .Smallest, lightest vertebra cervical vertebra
Identify vertebral structure/region: .Largest superior articular facets Atlas
Identify vertebral structure/region: .Triangular vertebral foramen Lumbar vertebra
Name the bones (2) of the pectoral girdle Scapula Clavicle
Lateral bone of the forearm Radius
Madial bone of the forearm Ulna
Pectoral girdle that is unattached to the axial skeleton Scapula
Depression in the scapula that articulates with the humerous glenoid cavity (fossa)
Rounded knob of humerous that articulates with the radius capitulum
Scapular region to which clavical connects Acromion Process
Process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment Coracoid process
The "collarbone" Clavicle
Distal condyle of the humerous that articulates with the ulna Trochlea
Forearm bone involved in formation of the elbow Ulna
Wrist bones Carpals
Finger bones Phalanges
Heads of these bones form the knuckles metacarpals
Bones (2) that articulate with the clavicle Manubrium (sternum) Scapula
Anterior depression, superior to the trochlea, which receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed Coronoid fossa
3 bones fuse to form the coxal bone Ilium Pubis Ischium
Point where coxal bones join anteriorly Pubic symphysis
Superior most margin of the coxal bone Iliac crest
Deep socket of the coxal bone that receives the head of the femer Acetabulum
The lateral bone of the lower leg Fibula
Thick medial bone of lower leg Tibia
Kneecap Patella
Shinbone Tibia
Ankle bones Tarsals
Longest bone in the body femur
Largest tarsal bone Calcaneus
Tarsal bone that supports the body weight/articulates with the calculaneous Talus
Lateral ankle projection Lateral malleolus (fibula)
Medial ankle projection Medial malleolous (tibia)
Bones forming the instep of foot Metatarsals
Bones (2) forming knee joint Tibia Femur
Bone with the lateral malleolous Fibula
Bone with the medial Malleolous Tibia
Compare Male and female pelvis: .Inlet Female inlet is large and more circular
Compare Male and female pelvis: .depth Female pelvis as a whole is challower and bone is lighter and thinner
Compare Male and female pelvis: .sacrum Female sacrum is broader and less curved, pubic arch is more rounded
Compare Male and female pelvis: .acetabula & ilia Female acetabula are smaller and farther apart, ilia flare laterally
Compare Male and female pelvis: .ischial spines .. pelvic outlet Female ischial spines are shorter and farter apart, inverted *larger pelvic outlet
What characteristics do all joints have in common? All are made of connective tissue, all hold bones together.
Identify Joint type: Typically allows a slight degree of movement cartilaginous
Identify Joint type: Includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis cartilaginous
Identify Joint type: Essentially immoveable joints Fibrous
Identify Joint type: Sutures are an example of this joint type Fibrous
Identify Joint type: Characterized by cartilage connecting the articulating bone ends cartilaginous
Identify Joint type: a fiberous articulr capsule lined with a membrane surrounding a joint cavity synovial
Identify Joint type: all are freely moveable synovial
Identify Joint type: bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue Fibrous
Identify Joint type: include hip, knee, and elbow joints. synovial
Identify Joint type: ampiarthrotic caartilaginous
Identify Joint type: diathrotic synovial
Identify Joint type: synarthrotic fibrous
Classify Joint : Joint between skull bones fibrous synarthrotic
Classify Joint : joint between axis and atlas Synovial Uniaxial
Classify Joint : Hip joint Synovial Multiaxial
Classify Joint : Intervertebral joints Cartilagenous Symphysis
Classify Joint : Elbow Synovial Uniaxial
Classify Joint : Interphalangeal joints synovial Uniaxial
Classify Joint : Joint between talus and tibia/fibula Synovial Uniaxial
Classify Joint : Epiphyseal plate of a childs long bone cartilagenous synchondrosis
Joint between forearm bones and wrist synovial Biaxial
Created by: 100000478587326