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Science and Tech

MTEL Science and Tech Study

QuestionAnswer
Explain how plants manufacture food. Water and solar energy. the energy absorbed by chlorophyll breaks down water absorbed through the roots into hydrogen and oxygen to form ATP molecules to store energy
Describe chloroplasts of plant cells. they make plants green, contains chlorophyll, DNA, ribosomes, and numerous enzymes, surrounded by a membrane
Describe the characteristics of angiosperms. are plants that have flowers, seeds and pollen can be spread by wind or insect or in feces, some produce fruit - two kinds (monocotyledons (grasses, corn, palm trees, lilies, three petals) and dicotyledons (most everyday flowers, four or five petals)
Explain the functions of roots, stems, and leaves. roots pull water and minerals from soil and support/stabilize the tree, some roots are food (carrots); they are primary or lateral (trunk/branches -- stems transport food and water and support, leaves are for photosynthesis
List the five kingdoms of life forms and give a brief description of each. Moneran (simplest organisms, bacteria), Protist (one-celled, protozoa), Fungi (reproduce using spores) Plant (multi-celled, have chlorophyll), Animal (multi-celled, have to feed on organic material)
Compare and contrast autotrophs, producers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and decomposers. autotrophs (capable of producing own food/algae), Producers (green plants), Herbivores (eat only plants/primary consumers), Carnivores (secondary consumers, eat bodies of other animals), Omnivores (eat both), Decomposers (fungi and bacteria/breaks down)
Describe the structure of the nucleus and mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus surrounded by a nuclear envelope (allows Chromatin (RNA&DNA) and proteins to pass through), mitochondria take in nutrients
Describe the characeristics of gymnosperms, cycads, and conifers. Gymnosperms (plans with vascular systems and sees, but no flowers. Cycads (sturdy plants with big, waxy fronds, can survive in harsh conditions, cone in center. Conifers (tall and strong due to xylem)
Explain the purpose of a skeletal system. support the body, provide a framework to which muscles and organs can connectm and protect inner organs -- interacts with muscular sytem for movement and circulatory system (marrow)
Explain why it is important to study science in the context of personal and social perspectives. see where society has been and how far it has come due to scientific advancements (tools, medicine, tranportation, communication) (computers, refrigeration, vaccines, miscrosopes, fertilizers, etc)
Describe science as a series of processes. posing a question, forming a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, recording data, drawing a conclusion; getting feedback, publishing an article, reporting to the community, replicating
Define the Terrestrial Planets and the Jovian Planets, and describe the mass of the planets in the solar system. Terrestrial (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars - closest to the sun). Jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune -- gaseous nature)
Define an ecological system and a biome and give examples of each. Ecosystem (community of all the living organisms in a specific area interacting with non-living factors such as temp., sunlight, atmospheric pressure, weather patterns, wind, etc.) A biome (general ecosystem type defined by local climate patterns
Explain how the rock record can help determine the order in which geologic events ocurred. The Law of Superposition assumes that the bottom layer of a series of sedimentary layers is the oldest (unless toppled by another rock). Rock layers are older than the folds and faults. Decay rate.
Describe the three major subdivisions of rock: Igneous (formed from cooling of liquid magma), Metamorphic (under conditions of high temp. and pressure within the earth's crust, melts and changes structure, changing into a new type of rock - marble). Sedimentary (most common, clastic, clay, and sand)
Define the following fields of biology: cytology, histology,ethology. cytology (cells), histology (tissues), ethology (animal behavior)
Briefly outline the development of life on earth according to time periods. Igneous rocks formed, continents formed, one-celled creatures, worms, moss arthropods, mushrooms , fish with jaws , fish with lungs and legs (frogs), reptiles lay eggs on land, dinosaurs, flying insects/birds, flowering plants, mammals
Define the euphotic zone, the bathyal zone, and the sbyssal zone of the oceans. Deep ocean. Euphotic (surface area of deep ocean where there is sunshine and oxygen), Bathyal (further down, dim light, no little organisms), Abyssal (bottom of the ocean (pitch black, no producers and little oxygen, very cold and high pressure)
Describe the composition of earth's atmosphere. 79% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and 1% other gases. Troposphere (closest to earth, weather here), Stratosphere (air flow is horizontal, upper layer is ozone) Mesosphere (coldest layer), Thermosphere (lower ionosphere and higher exosphere, very thin)
Describe the mountains and define orogeny, folded mountains, fault0block mountains, and dome mountains. Circum-Pacific, Alpine-Himalaya. Orogeny (natural mountain formation), Folded Mountains (folding of rock layers when two crustal plates come together. Fault-block mountains (tension forces of plate movements, vertical displacement of one section).
Compare and contrast the earth's sun to other stars. Star is formed when a cloud of hydrogen and some heavier elements a drawn together, matter rotates core heats up, hydrogen atoms lose their shells and their nuclei to fuse, releases energy. Core, photsphere, sunspots, red chromosphere corona
Define the traditional earth science disciplines. Geology. meteorology, oceanography, ecology
Describe two types of aquifers. Underground water reservoir formed from groundwater that has infiltrated from the surface by passing thtough soil and rock layers. Confined (water is under pressure/up to surface/spring) and Unconfined (water pumped out). Highest level/water table
Name the different types of climates and identify the factors that affect climates. polar (ice caps), polar (tundra), subtropical(dry summer, dry winter, humid, marine west coast, mediterranean, wet), Tropical (monsoon, savannah, wet) Factors: temperature, atmospheric pressure, number of clouds/smog, winds)
List ways that the earth's geological history can be sequenced from the fossil and rock record. rocks can be dated by the fossils found with them, dated plate motions, theor of uniformitarianism (proceses have remained the same)
Provide a definition of a planet as agreed upon by the IAU in 2006 and briedly describe the solar system. A planet orbits a star and is neither a star nor a moon, it's shape is spherical due to its gravity, it has cleared the space of its orbit. Solar system (4.6 billion years old, inside orbit is separated from the outside orbit by an asteroid belt.
Name the planets and describe them in relation to their orbits. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. They revolve in the same direction in nearly circular orbits
Describe the biosphere. living world of trees, bugs, and animals, any place where life exists on earth.
Describe the field of paleontology. prehistoric plant and animal life through the analysis of fossil remains
Name the different types of volcanoes and volcanic mountains. shield volcanoes (largest due to repeated viscous lava flow from small eruptions over a long period of time), cinder cone (linear, small, massive explosions). Composite volcanoes (mix of lava and ash layers that build them mountain).
Define comets, asteroids, and meteroids. Comets (dust, rock, frozen gases, and ice - invisible until near the sun, heat creates jets of gas and dust - coma is envelope that glows). Asteroids (irregularly-shaped boulders, made of graphite. Meteoroids (fragments/shooting stars)
List he geological eras and their dates. Hadean (4.5-3.8b) Archaean (3.8-2.5b)Proterozoic(2.5b-5) Cambrian(542-488)Ordovician (488-443)Silurian(443-416), Silurian(443-416)Devonian (416-359)Carboniferous(359-290), Permian(290-248),Triassic(251-200), Jurassic(200-150)Cretaceous (150-65)
More Geological Era Paleogene (65-28), Neogene (28-2), Quaternary (2ma-present)
Define freshwater biomes, estuaries, intertidal zones, and subtidal zones. Freshwater biomes (slow-moving water, time to grow), Estuaries (freshwater from river mixes with salt water of the ocean, good for kaying eggs) Intertidal Zone (underwater during high tide, dry during low tide). Subtidal zones (sandy under water
Describe the layers of the earth. Crust (35-70 km in the continents, 5-10 in the ocean basins), Mantle (2900 km thick, ferro-magnesium silicates, upper, lower mantle, most of the heat here), Core (liquid outer core (2300 km thick/nickel iron), solid inner core (12 km thick/iron)
Explain how fossil and rock records can reveal changes in the earth's history. Fossils show changes in animals and plants over time. Fossils identify eras...evolution.
Identify the characteristics of the earth's moon. craters created by asteroids, no protective atmosphere, virtually no water, temps cary from 265F to -255F
Describe the components of earth system science. interdisciplinary approach (extreme weather events, changing climates, earthquakes and volcanoes, losses in biodiversity, sun's solar variability in relation to the earth's climate, atmosphere's increasing concentrations of carbon diozide and aerosols
Describe the hydrosphere and the hydrologic cycle. Hydrosphere (anything that is related to water). Hydrologic cycle (the journey water takes as it assumes different forms)
Describe erosion. Process that breaks down matter, always happens downhill, denudation (breaking down of land by weather/waves), Mass Wasting (movement - mechanical or chemical)
Explain how geologists match rocks and geologic events in one place with those of another. Similarities in patterns of rock layers, thickness, color, composition, fossil remains. Volcanic ash linked to a known eruption. Meteor impact
Describe the formation and types of glaciers. start high in the mountains, snow is slowly pulled down by gravity. they can move plants, animals, and rocks from one place to another. Valley (U-shaped, sharp peaks), Continental (rounded mountain tops
Define inorganic compounds and describe their characteristics. lack carbon (mineral salts, metals, alloys, phosporous)
Discuss solutions. homogeneous mixture or two or more different substances that are mixed together but not combined chemically. Solute and solvent (substance that is dissolved and the substance that does the dissolving)
List some of the biological, chemical, and physical properties that contribute to the earth's life-sustaining system. Life on earth is dependent on: water (vapor, liquid, solid), forms of carbon. In the atmosphere carbon dioxide (methane and black carbon) produce the greenhouse effect. Combination of water, carbob, nutrients.
Explain the Doppler effect. Effect of relative motion of the source of the wave and the location of the observer has on the waves. Sound waves (emitted sound not changed, but received frequency has changed.
Discuss the unique properties of water. high polarity, hydrogen bonding, cohesivness, adhesivness, high specific heat, high latent heat, and high heat of vaporization.
List some properties of salts. formed from acid base reactions, are ionic compounds consisting of metallic and non-metallic ions, dissociate in water, comprised of tightly bonded ions
Discuss the electromagnetic spectrum. frequency (hertz) and wavelength (meters). Frequency x wavelength = speed of light/ radio waves, microwaves, infared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays
Explain how to read chemical equations. describe chemical reactions; reactants on left before the arrow, products on the right, arrow indicate reaction or change.
List some properties of acids. when they are dissolved in aqueous solutions, they conduct electricity, change blue litmus paper to red, have a sour taste, react with bases to neutralize them, and react with active metals to free hydrogen
Explain the kinetic theory of gases. assumes that gas molecules are small compared to the distance between them and that they are in constant random motion/kinetic energy does not change with time as long as the temp. remains the same, but if temp rises motion increases
Discuss hydrogen bonds, particularly hydrogen bonds in water are weaker than covalent bonds and ionic bonds/water is positively charged on the hydrogen end and negatively on the oxygen end/weak and short lived, but numerous
Define pH and discuss the pH scale. measurement of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a substance in terms of the number of moles of H+ per liter of solution/between 0-14/low pH means a high H+/lower than water is scidic (urine, vinegar) higher is base (ammonia, drain cleaner)
List some properties of bases they conduct electricity, change red litmus paper to blue, feel slippery, and react with acids to neutralize their properties
List some methods for balancing equations. unbalanced does not follow law of conservation of mass (matter can only be changed, not created)
Discuss visible light as part of the electromagnetic spectrum. light is visible part of electromagnetic spectrum because of its ability to stimulate the retina; visible light is between ultraviolet and infared. Red is longest, violet is shortest
Define pitch, loudness, sound intensity, timbre, and oscillation. Pitch:the quality of sound determined by frequency/Loudness:a human's perception of sound intensity/Sound intensity: the sound power per unit area (decibels)/Timbre: human's perception of the type or quality of sound/Oscillation:measurement of time
Define organic compounds and identify their characteristics carbon and are formed by covalent bonds; melt/biol at temps below 300C;
Briefly define mixtures, suspensions, colloids, emulsions, and foams. suspensions: mixtures of heterogeneous materials/colloidal suspension: mixture of large particles (dispersants)/Emulsion: a liquid or a solid that has a liquid dispersed through it/Foam: a liquid that has gas dispersed through it
Describe the periodic table and its basic layout. similar chemical properties together, based on atomic structure; included symbol and atomic number
Provide a general overview of chemical reactions. speed of reaction depends on how frequently reacting atoms and molecules interact, temperature, and shape; catalysts accelerate chemical reactions, inhibitors slow down;
List four basic laws of thermodynamics. 1:two objects in equilibrium with a third object are also with each other/2: heat cannot be created or destroyed/3rd: entropy (disorder) of an isolated system can only increase/3rd:as temp. approaches abs. zero entropy approaches a constant minumum
List some facts about gravitational force. gravity is the weakest of the 4 forces; gets weaker with distance/ Einstein and Newton; joins centers of masses
Provide examples of circuits flow from one terminal of a car battery to the other; battery, copper wire to a light bulb
Explain the phenomenon of sound pressure disturbance that moves a medium in the form of mechanical waves, which transfer energy from one particle to the next; compressions (particles forced together), rarefactions (particles move farther apart and their density decreases)/kinetic energy
Define atom, nucleus, electrons, and protons atom: consists of a central nucleus surrounded by electrons/Nucleus: protons and neutrons/Electrons: atomic particles negative/Protons: equals atomic number
Compare and contrast physical and chemical properties and changes. physical change is a change of state, nit makeup; chemical change results in a different substance
Define thermal contact, entropy, conservation of energy, and perpetual motion TC: energy transferred to a body by means other than work/ Entropy: disorder, energy no longer working/ Conservation of energy:amount of energy in a closed system is constant/Perp. Mot: misguided
Explain the relationship between conservation of matter and atomic theory atomic theory deals with matter on a microscopic level (John Dalton - all matter consists of atoms and atoms are indestructible)-when dealing with large amounts of energy, atoms can be destroyed by nuclear reactions
Define and discuss electric charges as they relate to atomic structure a positive or negative charge creates an electromagnetic field, positive is away from it and negative is towards it; measure in Coulombs
Discuss magnetic fields and current magnetic domains can be formed by magnetic material or by electric current through a wire
Explain how molecules are formed Valence layer has or shares 8 electrons; molecules are formed by a chemical bond between atoms; covalent bond is when the atom shares electrons; ionic bond is when an atom transfers an electron to another atom
Discuss what matter is and describe its properties substances that have mass and occupy space (or volume); solid, liquid, and gas, plasma (ionized gas that has some electrons that are free)
Discuss past atomic models and theories Democrtius 400 BC first model, John Dalton billiard ball model, JJ Thompson plum pudding or raisin bun model, Ernest Rutherford planetary or nuclear model, Bohr orbit model, Louis de Broglie electron cloud, quantum mechanical model
List some examples of energy transformations Electrical to mechanical (ceiling fan), chemical to heat (internal combustion engine), chemical to light (glow in the dark), heat to electricity (geothermal), nuclear to heat (reactors), light to electric (solar panels)
Define simple machines and list some examples incline plane, lever, wheel and axle, pulley (no internal source of energy)
Discuss the basics of a magnet, including composition, poles, and permanence magnet is a piece of metal that can affect another substance within its field of force that has like characteristics, can attract or repel, north and south poles, can be temporary or permanent magnets
Define atomic number, neutrons, and elements atomic number (proton number), can be represented as Z/Neutrons: uncharged atomic particles contained within the nucleus; nucleon: collective neutrons and protons; element: matter with one type of atom
Define elements, compounds, solutions, and mixtures. List some chemical properties of elements element (only one type of atom), compounds (containing two or more elements), solutions (homogenous mixtures of two or more substances that have become one), mixtures (2 or more substances combined but not reacted chemically),
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