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Endocrine System !!

exocrine secretes products into ducts
endocrine secrete products into body fluids to affect target cells. Actions are metabolic and precise.
Hormones chemicals that carry messages to target cells
endocrine glands pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, pineal
endocrine organs Hypothalamus, pancreas, ovaries, kidney, testes,thymus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenalgland.
Process of endocrine system hormone secreted into bloodstream, target cells recieve and respond.
hormones are steroids, amines, peptides, proteins, or glycoproteins
steroid hormones lipid soluble and can pass through cell membrane. receptors for hormones are in the target cells nucleus. the hormone receptor complex binds with the DNA and activates specific genes that direct the synthesis of specific proteins
Nonsteroid hormones combine with receptors in target cell membranes; the receptors have a binding and an activity site. the hormone receptor complex(1st messenger) triggers activity. G protein, enzyme adenylates cyclase, ATP to cAMP. (2nd)proteins and enzymes induce change.
Other nonsteroids use diacylglycerol (DAG), or inositol triphosphate.
Prostaglandins lipids that affect organ in which they are produced
effects of prostaglandins relaz smooth muscle, contract smooth muscle, stimulate secretion of hormones, influence blood pressure and inflammation.
Negative feedback systems control hormone release. a gland is sensitive to the concentration of the substance it regulates. when a concentration goes up or down it inhibits the gland from secreting more hormone until it returns to normal.(ex:insulin and glycagon)
Glycemia endocrine disease. symptoms: trembling, increased heart rate, irritability, headache, hunger, anxiety, weak, tired, blurred vision, ringing in ears, persperation. HYPO-low blood glucose HYPER-high blood glucose
Hirsutism women have excess male hormones (androgens, primarily testosterone. causes excess amount of facial hair.
Adrenal Gland On top of kidney.
epinephrine, norepinephrine, aldosterone, cortisol hormones in adrenal gland that increase heart rate,metabolism, affects blood flow, responds to stress (fight or flight), controls[]of mineral electrolites, glucose metabolism.
Ovary lateral wall of pelvic cavity
Estrogen, progesterone female hormones for puberty, and changes uterine lining in preperation for pregnancy. Found in Ovary
Testes pelvic cavity
testosterone hormone that aids in maturity of body, and male secondary sex characteristics
Kidney side of abdominal cavity
Erythropoietin hormone found in kidney. Stimulates production of red blood cells
Thymus Between the lungs
Thymosins hormones that aid in immunity
Pineal gland between cerebral hemispheres, attaches to thalamus
melatonin biological clock (dark/light cycles, circadian rhythms regulate)
Parathyroid gland posterior surface of thyroid gland
parathyroid hormone, calcitonin hormone maintains blood calcium concentration. affects bones, kidneys, and intestine
thyroid gland below larynx and in front of trachea
thyroxine, calcitonin, triiodothyronine hormone regulates metabolism, increases rate of protein synthesis. in thyroid gland
Hypothalamus in brain
epinephrine, corticotropin hormones that respond to stress. In brain.
Pituitary gland at base of brain
Growth hormone, Prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenoconticotropic hormones, FSH, ADH in pituitary gland
pancreas near small intestine (posterior to stomach). secretes digestive juices
glucagon raises blood glucose levels in pancreas
insulin lowers blood glucose levels in pancreas, promotes storage of organic fuel, glycogen synthesis.
TRH Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone.(pituitary hormone) stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone.
GnRH Gonadropin-releasing hormone. (pituitary hormone). Stimulates secretion of FSH ans LH, the muturation of gametes and production of reproductive hormones
Somatostatin SST (pituitary hormone). inhibits secretion of GHRH
GHRH growth hormone releasing hormone.(pituitary hormone) stimulates growth and energy metabolism
CRH Corticotropin releasing hormone. (Pituitary hormone). stimulates secretion of ACTH which secretes glucocorticoids
Funtions of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)? controls blood volume,blood pressure, and salt balance (in heart)
functions of peptide hormone gastrin? Stimulates HCl secretion in stomach and growth of gastric mucosa.
Glucose causes pancreas to secrete insulin when glucose is present in the small intestine
motilin released about every 90 minutes and causees the smooth peristaltic waves that sweep food toward the terminus of the small intestine
Secretin causes the gall bladder and pancreas to secrete bicarbonate ion into the small intestines where it neutralizes acidic chyme from the stomach
Cholecystokinin stimulates secretion of bile by gallbladder, secretions of digestive enzymes of pancreas, and promotes growth and maintenance of pancreas and gallbladder.
Function of erythropoietin Stimulates bone marrow to increase production of red blood cells (erythrocytes) (in kidney)
Function of calcitrol? Increases uptake of calcium from intestine. (in kidneys)
inhibin regulates secretion of FSH from the anterior pituitary in a negative feedbacl mechanism
Estrogen important for egg decelopment inside the ovarian follicles
Progesterone Important after ovulation for maintaining the integrity of the uterine lining and during pregnancy
testosterone aids in development of gametes, is respondsible for secondary sex characteristics, and controls libido
What are two pesterior pituitary hormones? oxytosin and vasopressin
Aldosterone mineralcorticoid that causes the reabsorption of sodium and the secretion of potassium (adrenal gland)
Cortisol glucocorticoid that regulates metabolism, regulates immune system, and facilitates the stress response. (adrenal gland)
Androgens Stimulates growth spurt early in puberty and controls female sex drive
What is the importance of catecholamines? (adrenal gland) the give the fight or flight response
what are the functions of thymic hormones? regulate T cell development and play a role in immune response
Functions of TH regulates metabolic functions, is essential for growth, essential for development of nervous system, amplifies the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (heart)
What is the function of the pineal gland? coordinates internal clock by melatonin
TSH Anterior pituitary hormone: target thyroid gland and stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
FSH Anterior pituitary hormone: targets follice, trigggers ovulation and increases secretion of progesterone. In males, it stimulates testosterone production
LH Anterior pituitary hormone: targets follicles in ovaries and stimulats growth of follicle and production of estrogen. In males, it targets the testes and stimulates sperm cell production
PRL Anterior pituitary hormone: targets breasts in females. Stimulates breast development and lactation
GH Anterior pituitary hormone: targets most bodily tissues and stimulates metabolism and growth of those tissues
ACTH Anterior pituitary hormone: targets the adrenal cortex and causes the secretion of glucocorticoids
Oxytocin in breasts
Created by: beckdur6



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