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Pathophys-1 Midterm

Inflammation & Neoplasia/Anaplasia etc.

necrosis premature death of cells in living tissue, caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma. (necrosis is almost always detrimental and can be fatal.)
causes of necrosis external factors such as infection, toxins, or trauma
apoptosis programmed cell death upon completion of cell changes that may include: blebbing, cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation
causes (purpose) or apoptosis internal factors
major types of "cellular adaptation" atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, metaplasia
example of atrophy muscles not used (or with inadequate innervation)
example of hypertrophy heart
example of hyperplasia ?
example of dysplasia cervix d/t HPV infection
example of metaplasia epithelial cells that line trachea change into the more durable columnar cells of stomach d/t chronic irritation of smoking, etc.
aplasia lack or inadequate development/growth
anaplasia totally undifferentiated, weird, large cells
neoplasia out of control growth, but not necessarily malignant
cellular injury, REVERSIBLE k
cellular injury, IRREVERSIBLE k
4 types of body tissue connective (includes bone & blood), muscle (aka mesenchymal), nervous, epithelial
three types of muscles tissue cardiac, smooth, skeletal
Major eukaryotic organelles: rough ER translation and folding of new proteins
Major eukaryotic organelles: smooth ER expression of lipids
Major eukaryotic organelles: Golgi apparatus sorting and modification of proteins
Major eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria energy production from the oxidation of food substances and the release of ATP
Major eukaryotic organelles: vacuole storage, helps maintain homeostasis
Major eukaryotic organelles: nucleus DNA maintenance, controls all activities of the cell, RNA transcription
Minor eukaryotic organelles: centriole anchor for cytoskeleton, helps in cell division by forming spindle fibers
Minor eukaryotic organelles: lysosome breakdown of large molecules (e.g., proteins + polysaccharides)
Minor eukaryotic organelles: melanosome pigment storage
Minor eukaryotic organelles: peroxisome breakdown of metabolic hydrogen peroxide
Minor eukaryotic organelles: ribosome translation of RNA into proteins
Minor eukaryotic organelles: nucleolus ribosome production
facilitated diffusion a process of passive transport, facilitated by integral ("transport") proteins
passive diffusion/transport (aka simple diffusion) type of diffusion that allows minerals and solutes to travel through a membrane without using a pump or catalyst
active transport The movement of a substance against its concentration gradient, using energy such as ATP (primary active transport)
dystrophic calcification k
metastatic calcification k
steatosis of liver (aka fatty liver) a REVERSIBLE condition where large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e. abnormal retention of lipids within a cell)
labile cells Constantly dividing cell types: skin cells, cells in the GI tract, blood cells in the bone marrow.
stable cells Cells taht are in Gap O most of the time in the cell cycle, but can be stimulated to enter the cell cycle when needed. e.g: liver, the proximal tubules of the kidney, and endocrine glands
major cells of acute inflammation neutrophils (she says PMNs)
major cells of chronic inflammation k
chemical mediators of acute inflammation histamine (she adds serotonin), prostaoglandins, complement proteins
chemical mediators of chronic inflammation k
granulomatous inflammation type of inflammation characterized by the development of granulomas
diffuse interstitial inflammation type of inflammation chiefly affecting the stroma of an organ
granuloma tiny collection of immune cells known as macrophages
diseases characterized by granulomas TB, leprosy, PCP, histo, crypto, sarcoidosis, Crohn's
non-specific markers of inflammation erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sed rate) and C-reactive protein
granulation the perfused, fibrous connective tissue that replaces a fibrin clot in healing wounds. Granulation tissue typically grows from the base of a wound and is able to fill wounds of almost any size it heals
mesenchymal (aka mesenchymal connective tissue) a type of undifferentiated loose connective tissue that is derived mostly from mesoderm
tumors of mesenchymal origin sarcoma
tumors of epithelial origin carcinoma
most common tumor suppressive genes The retinoblastoma (RB), p53, and p16 genes are the best-understood tumor suppressors
mutations in RB gene are associated with which types of cancer? retinoblastomas, osteosarcomas (cancer of the bone), as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and bladder
mutations in p53 gene are associated with which types of cancer? cancers of the skin, lung, breast, brain, bone, bladder, kidney, esophagus, and pancreas
mutations in p16 gene are associated with which types of cancer? most frequently mutated gene associated with the development of many different types of human cancer, including those of the breast, lung, and colon
most common cancer in men pancreatic, stomach
most common cancer in women breast, cervical, ovarian?
most common cancers in USA lung cancer responsible for most deaths
most deadly cancer pancreatic cancer (although cancer of bile duct, cholangiocarcinoma, might be)
cancer with most annual US deaths lung (2nd is colorectal, 3rd is breat)
cancers most commonly associated with neoplastic effects lung, breast, ovaries or lymphatic system (lymphoma-- and more often seen in middle aged to older patients
viroid plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch (a few hundred nucleobases) of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA WIHTOUT the protein coat that is typical for viruses. The human pathogen hepatitis D is similar to viroids.
prion only infectious agent known to date that contains neither RNA or DNA
prion an infectious agent composed of protein in a misfolded form
hamartoma excessive accumulation of normal cells
choristoma excessive and OUT OF PLACE accumulation of (normal?) cells
major mechanism of body temperature regulation (heat loss) in humans is RADIATION! (70%)
hyperthermia inability to dissipate heat from body
heat stroke resembles TCM dx of Liver Fire
fever chemical inflammatory reaction of the hypothalmus
heat exhaustion resembles TCM dx of Yang collapse (in biomedicine, is a kind of 'shock')
2 purposes of inflammation remove/destroy & repair/clean
acute inflammation cause "infection or infarct"
chronic inflammation cause foreign materials in body, auto-immune reaction, improperly resolved acute episode
"vascular events of acute inflammation" BVs open and lungs close
steps of cellular inflammation margination & adhesion, transmigration across epithelium (via diapedesis), chemotaxis, phagocytosis
serotonin Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a vasoactive mediator similar to histamine found in mast cells and platelets in the GI tract and CNS
Created by: mrbarr