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Chp. 6 Skel. System

Chapter 6 Skeletal System

What is the Skeletal System? The Skeletal system are the bones and accessory structures that make up the joints.
Some bones contain and protect the _____ bone marrow. Red
Bones are storage sites for excess ______. Calcium
What attaches to the skeleton and make help to move the bones? Muscles
Some bones protect the internal organs from what? Injury
What is compact bone? Made of Haversian systems, which are cylindrical arrangements of osteocytes within matrix.
What is Spongy bone? Contains osteocytes and bone matrix, but not arranged in haversian systems. Also, often contain red bone marrow.
What are osteocytes? osteocytes regulate the amount of calcium in the bone matrix and bone cells.
what is bone matrix? made of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate.
What are the 2 types of bone? compact and spongy
How many classifications of bones are there? Name the different classifications. There are four classifications of bones and they are long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones.
Where can you find long bones? Bones of the arms, legs, hands and feet.
Where can you find short bones? wrist and ankle bones.
Where can you find flat bones? pelvic bone, ribs and cranial bones.
Where can you find irregular bones? Vertebrae and facial bones.
The tissue that covers the joint surface of bones is called what? Cartilage
The ________ is the "shaft" or middle long part of the bone. Diaphysis
the ______ is the ends of the bone. Epiphysis
the _______ is between the diaphysis and epiphysis. Metaphysis
________ is the fibrous connective tissue membrane that ____ the bone. Periosteum, covers
The periosteum does not cover where the _______ cartilage is. articular
______ is the process of bone replacement of another tissue. Ossification
osteoblasts are cells that aid in the _______ of bone matrix. production
The cranial and facial bones are made of ________ ________ tissue. Fibrous connective
The process of ossification begins in the _____ month of gestation. third
The _____ is the "soft spot" of fibrous connective tissue still present at birth. Fontanel
The fontanel allows for __________ of the skull during birth. compression
At what age is the "soft spot" completely ossified? Age 2
closure of the epiphyseal discs means that all of the cartilage of the discs has been replaced by _____. bone
What are osteoclasts? cells that break down bone by resorption.
______ is the genetic potential for height and bone mass. Heredity
Thyroxine, PTH, calitonin, GH, Testosteron and estrogen are all what? Hormones
Osteoporosis is _________ bone matrix causing weakness and a _________ potential for fracture. Weakness, higher
There are 2 divisions of the skeleton. What are they? Axial & appendicular
What is the axial skeleton? Forms the axis of the body which includes the skull, spine and thoracic rib cage.
What is the appendicular skeleton? Forms the appendages and girdles.
Ligaments are ______ ____________ tisuue that connects bone to bone. fibrous connective
Foramen means _______? Hole
a fossa is what? a dent or depression
what is a crest? a ridge or edge.
what is the meatus? passageway - ear hole
What is a process? A projection
what is a facet? a flat projection - spinal joint
What is a condyle? a rounded projection
what is a plate? a flat projection - between the nose
What is a tubercle? A round projection
What is a tuberosity? A rounded projection - deltoid
The skull has __ (number) cranial bones. Eight
The skull has ___ (number) facial bones. 14
The skull has 6 ______ _______. Auditory ossicles
The skull has one ____ bone. Hyoid
What do the cranial bones surround and protect? they surround the brain and protect the eyes and ears.
The frontal bone forms the ________ and the anterior part of the top of the skull. forehead
the __________ bones form the posterior top and much of the side walls of the skull. Parietal
each _____ bone on the side of the skull contains an external auditory meatus. temporal
the _____ bone forms the lower, posterior part of the braincase. Occipital
All of the joints between cranial bones are immovable joints called _____. Sutures
There are 4 different types of sutures. What are they? Coronal, squamosal, lambdoidal, and sagittal.
Where is the coronal suture? Between the frontal and parietal bones.
where is the squamosal suture? between the parietal and temporal bones.
the _____ suture is between the parietal and occipital bones. Lambdoidal
The ________ suture is between parietal bones. Sagittal
The mandible is the _______ ____. Lower jaw
the mandible is the only _____ bone. movable
______ forms the bridge of the nose. Nasal bones
the _________ is the cheek bone. Zygomatic
what bones form the posterior part of the hard palate? Palatine
The vertebral column is made of individual bones called _________. Vertebrae
there are 7 _____ vertebrae. Cervical
there are ___ thoracic vertebrae. 12
There are 5 ___ vertebrae. Lumbar
there are __ sacral fused in to __ sacrum. 5 and 1
there are __ to __ coccygeal vertebrae fused in to 1 coccyx. 4 to 5
The 7 cervical vertebrae are those within the ____. neck
the first vertebra of the cervical vertebrae is called the ___. Atlas
The axis is the _____ cervical vertebrae. second
The ______ vertebrae articulate with the robs on the body and transverse process on each side. Thoracic
the lumbar vertebrae is the ____ back. low
the sacrum is the _______. Tailbone
the coccyx is the vestigial structure that is remnant of a ___. Tail
what is the canal formed by the vertebral arches that the spinal cord passes through? Vertebral canal
projections serve as _____ sites for muscles. attachment
the _____ is the cartilage pad between bodies. fibrocartilage or discs
what is the part of the skeleton that protects the heart, lungs, spleen and liver from mechanical injury? The rib cage
the hip bones attach the legs to the ____ skeleton. axial
true or false: we have false ribs in our bodies. true
there are __ pairs of ribs and sternum. 12
There are 3 parts of the sternum. What are they? The upper manubrium, the central body and the ziphoid process.
The shoulder _____ attaches the upper extremity to the axial skeleton. girdle
the shoulder girdle includes the scapula and the _____. clavicle
scapula is another name form ______ _______. shoulder blade
the _______ ________ is the attachment for shorthead bicipital tendons. corocoid process
the glenoid fossa is a lateral depression for the head of the ______ and forms a ____ ____ ______ joint. Humerus and ball and socket joint
the _____ process attaches to the clavicle to form the AC joint. Acromion
what type of bone is the humerus? a long bone
the deltoid tubercle is the attachment of the _______ muscle. deltoid
the ulna is the _____ of the two forearm bones. Medial
Olecranon process is another name for our _______. elbow
the radius is the _____ of the two forearm bones. Lateral
the radius allows pronation and supination of the ______. Hand
there are __ (number) carpals or wrist bones. eight
there are 2 different rows of carpals. They are: the proximal row and distal row
the proximal row contains what carpals? the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum and pisiform
The distal row contains what carpals? the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate
what type of joints are the carpals? gliding joints
the metacarpals are the ___ bones in the hand that attach proximally to the _____ and distally to the __________. long, carpals, phalanges
What are phalanges? Finger bones
phalanges are what _____ joints. Hinge
Pelvic girdle is another name for your ______. pelvis
__ ________ are made of 3 bones that fuse during development. os coxae
Femur is the ____ bone of the thigh. Long
the _______ __________ is a lateral projection on the proximal end of the femur. greater trochanter
the ______ _________ is the medial projection on the proximal end of the femur. lesser trochanter
the knee is a ____ joint. hinge
the tibia is the weight bearing bone of the ______ leg. lower
the ______ ______ forms the shin. anterior crest
the _______ __________ is the inferomedial part that forms the medial "ankle bone." medial malleolus
_______ is the non-weight bearing bone of the lower leg. fibula
the base of the fibula forms the lateral _______. malleolus
the calcaneus is another name for your ____ ____. heel bone
the calcaneus is the largest ______. tarsal
________ are the "foot" bones. metatarsals
toes are the _______. (same name as your fingers) phalanges
your great/big toe is called the _______. hallux
there are two different types of arches in the foot. What are they? the Longitudinal arch and the transverse arch.
synarthrosis joints are ________. immovable
Ampiarthrosis joints are ______ ___________. slightly movable
diarthrosis joints are ____ ________. freely movable
The articular cartilage is on the ___ ____ of each bone. joint surface
the joint capsule is made of _______ ___________ tissue. fibrous connective
what is synovial fluid? synovial fluid is thick and slippery and prevents friction as bones move.
_____ are small sacs of synovial fluid between the joint and the tendons that cross over the joint. bursae
inflammation of a joint is what? arthritis
what is actin? a contractile protein in the sarcomeres of muscle fibers.
scoliosis is an abnormal lateral curvature of the _____ __________. spinal column
thyroxine increases the rate of ______ synthesis. protein
what increases energy production from glucose? insulin
calcitonin decreases the reabsorption of _______ from bones. calcium
parathyroid hormone ________ (increases or decreases) the reabsorption of calcium from bones to the blood. increases
estrogen or testosterone promotes the ______ of the epiphysis of long bones. closure
true or false: estrogen is found in males. False, testosterone is found in males
a fracture means that a bone has been_____. broken
Created by: long2010