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JMT Digestive System

QuestionAnswer
Peristalsis Rhythmic, wavelike, involuntary movement.
Pharynx throat
bolus food that is chewed and mixed with saliva
rugae mucus membrane of the stomach that contains folds
villi fingerlike projections
hydrochloric acid kills bacteria, changes pepsinogen into pepsin
chyme food mixed with gastric juices
Duodenum First 9-10 inches of the small intestine
Esophagus Muscular tube dorsal to the trachea, pathway for food
Function of capillaries contained in the Villi Absorb digested nutrients and carry them to the liver
Produces cholesterol Liver
What do Lacteals do? Absorb most of digested fats and carry them to the thoracic duct which release them to the circulatory system
Pancreas Produces pancreatic juices, insulin and glucagon
Insulin and glucagon regulate blood glucose levels,
Bile emulsifies fat, stored in the gallbladder, produced in the liver
Heparin Produced by the liver, prevents clotting of the blood
Fibrinogen and Prothrombin Produced by the liver, aid in clotting of the blood
Vitamin K Synthesized in the large intestine, aid in clotting
Absorption of water and remaining nutrients Large intestine
What Vitamins are synthesized and absorbed in the large intestine Some B complex vitamins
Uvula Prevents food from entering the nasopharynx
The three salivary glands Sublingual, submandibular, and Parotid
Where does the digestive process start? In the mouth
The three sections of the small intestine in order. Duodenum, Jejunum and Ileum
What section of the small intestine is longest? Ileum then Jejunum then Duodenum
Detoxifies substances such as alcohol and pepticides Liver
Located under the liver Gallbladder
Located behind the stomach Pancreas
Storage area for indigestables and waste The rectum
Parts of the colon in order Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
Anus The final waste product is expelled
Parts of the Alimentary Canal Mouth, tongue, teeth, tongue, hard and soft palate,salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine
Bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth Hard palate
Separates mouth from nasal cavities, posterior to hard palate Soft palate
Amylase Enzyme secreted in the mouth begins break down of carbohydrates
Prothrombin Produced by the liver, aids in clotting of blood
Heparin Produced by the liver PREVENTS blood from clotting
Fibrinogen Produced by the liver, in the clotting of blood
What section of the large intestine is connected to the ileum? Cecum
The cecum contains a small projection called the? Appendix
What section is longer the small intestine or large intestine? Small approx. 20feet, large is approx 5 feet
Sugar that is the main source of energy in the body Glucose
Sugar that is stored in the liver, broken down to glucose for energy Glycogen
Hormone produced by the Pancreas, triggers a rise in blood sugar levels Glucagon
What does the digestive systme produce to aid in clotting? Liver produces Fibrinogen and Prothrombin, Large intestine synthesizes Vitamin K
How does pepsinogen change to pepsin Hydrochloric acid, produced by the parietal cells activates the pepsinogen to become pepsin
Why would the inside of stomach appear smooth? Because the rugae has disappeared to allow the stomach to increase in size
What is the name of the sphincter between the stomach and the esophagus? Esophogealgastric sphincter
What is the name of the sphincter between the stomach and the duodenum? Pyloric sphincter
Created by: Ms. Blair