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Bone Review

Diaphysis Part of bone formed from primary center of ossification; includes body or shaft
Epiphysis Part formed from 1 or more secondary centers of ossification.
Endosteum Membrane lining medullary cavities of long bones
Bone marrow Tissue occupying medullary cavities of long bones and spaces in spongy bone.
Periosteum Membrane covering bones, except joint surfaces.
Compact bone Dense, closely knit bone made up of haversian systems, located under perisoteum.
Spongy bone Porous loosely-knit bone.
The appendicular skeleton has how many bones? 126
The appendicular skeleton includes which bones? Pelvic & shoulder girdle, lower & upper limbs
The axial skeleton has how many bones? 80
The axial skeleton includes what bones? Skull, neck, thorax, and vertebral column.
What are the functions of bones? Support, Attachment for muscles, Movement, Protection, Blood Cell Production, and Mineral Storage
What tissue is found in the medulla of long bones? Bone marrow
What type of cartilage separates the diaphysis and epiphysis? Epiphyseal cartilage
What is ossification? Development and formation of bones.
Describe long bones. Consists of shaft and 2 articular extremities.
Name some long bones. Humerus, Radius, Metacarpals, Metatarsals, Tibia, Fibula
Describe flat bones. Consists of compact tissue in form of 2 plates enclosing cancellous tissue.
Name some flat bones. Frontal, Parietal, Ribs, Scapula
Describe short bones. Cancellous tissue with thin outer layer of compact tissue.
Name some short bones. Carpal, Tarsal, Lunate, Trapezium
Describe irregular bones. Peculiar shaped bones.
Name some irregular bones. Vertebrae, Sacrum, Facial bones, Ear bones, Maxilla, Mandible
Describe sesamoid bones. Small and oval; develop inside/beside tendons
Name a sesamoid bone. Patella (kneecap)
Ala Wing or sacrum or ilium
Condyle Rounded process at articular extremity
Coracoid Beaklike process
Cornu Horn
Crest Ridgelike process
Epicondyle Bony projection on or above a condyle
Fovea Small pit or depression
Facet Smooth articular surface process
Malleolus Club-shaped process.
Horn Hornlike process on a bone
Head Expanded end of a long bone
Hamulus Hook-shaped process
Protuberance Bony projection
Protuberance Bony projection
Process Definite or marked bony prominence
Spine Sharp process
Spinous process Sharp, slender process
Styloid process Another shrp, slender process
Trochanter Very large, elevated rounded process
Tubercle SMALL, rounded, elevated process
Tuberosity LARGE, rounded, elevated process
Fossa Pit
Sinus Recess, groove
Sulcus Furrow, Trench
Groove Shallow, linear depression
Fissure Cleft, Groove
Foramen Hole in a bone for transmission of blood vessels and nerves
Fibrous Joints (Types) Gomphosis/Syndesmosis/Suture
Fibrous Joints (Fact) Strongest joints in body
Fibrous Joints (Fact) United by various fibrous, connective tissue
Synovial Joints (Types) Gliding, Hinge, Pivot, Ellipsoid, Saddle, and Ball & Socket
Synovial Joints (Fact) Most complex joints of body
Synovial Joints (Fact) Permit wide range of motion
Cartilaginous Joints (Fact) Do not have a joint cavity
Cartilaginous Joints (Fact) Virtually immovable
Cartilaginous Joints (Fact) United by hyaline or fibrocartilage
Cartilaginous Joints (Types) Symphysis and Synchondrosis
In free-moving joint, bones ends are covered by: Articular cartilage
Osteoclast Destructive bone cells
Infancy Growth, formation of bones
Adulthood No growth, formation, reabsorption balanced
Old age No growth, less formation, more reabsorption
Diarthrodial (class of joint) Freely movable joint
Amphiarthrodial (class of joint) Limited motion joint
Synarthrodial (class of joint) Immovable joint
What fastens muscles to bones? Tendons
Immovable joints are classified as what? Synarthrodial
Freely movable joints are classifed as what? Diarthrodial
What fastens bone to bone? Ligaments
Landmark T7 Inferior angle of scapulae
Landmark T9, T10 Xiphoid process
Landmark L4, L5 Level of superior aspect of crests of ilia
List the 2 classes of joints Functional and Structural
List the 3 structural classes of joint Cartilaginous, Fibrous, and Synovial
Which bone classification is the trapezium Short.
Which structural class of articulations are cranial sutures? Fibrous
The scapula is classified as what type of bone? Flat bone
What is the name of the largest bone in the leg? Femur
Freely movable joints have bones, whose ends are covered by what? Articular cartilage
The level of the symphysis pubis can be located by palpating what? Greater trochanters
What tissue is found in the medulla of long bones? Marrow (bone)
Name the class of freely movable joints. Diarthrodial
Created by: rad1958tech