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Bio110 Chapter 6

Skeletal System

The function of the skeletal system is to provide the structural _________ for the body Support
The Skeletal system allows ___________ by providing attachment sites for muscles Movement
The skeletal system provides _________ for some of the internal organs Protection
The name for blood formation is Hemopoiesis
Hemopoiesis is the name for ______ formation Blood
Blood is produced in the ____ bone marrow Red
Red bone marrow produces ______ cells Blood
Hemopoiesis occurs in ____ bones and in the _________ of long bones Flat, Epiphysis
The functions of the skeletal system are- provides framework, movement, protection, hemopoiesis and ________ storage Calcium
The hormones responsible for calcium level maintenance in the blood are ________ & _________ hormone Calcitonin & Parathyroid hormone
________ is essential for many body functions including clotting & muscle & nerve function Calcium
Bone tissue is made of ____________ tissue Connective
Bone cells are called Osteocytes
Bone tissue contains osteocytes & ______ Matrix
Osteocytes are _____ cells Bone
Bone tissue matrix is made of ________ salts & ________ Calcium & collagen
Calcium salts & collagen make up the ______ of bone tissue matrix
There are __ types of bone tissue two
The two types of bone tissue are _______ & ______ Compact & spongy
Another name for Compact bone is _______ bone Cortical
Compact bone is made up of columns called Osteons or _________ _________ Haversian Systems
Concentric rings surround a _________ canal Haversian
A haversian canal is surrounded by ___________ rings Concentric
Haversian canals contain ______ vessels blood
Osteocytes are in the spaces called Licunae
Osteocytes communicate via __________ Canaliculi
Canaliculi are how __________ communicate Osteocytes
Spongy bone is also called __________ bone Cancellous
Spongy bone is very _______ porous
_______ bone is very porous Spongy
______ bone does not have haversian systems spongy
Spongy bone does not have _________ systems haversian
___________ regulate the amount of calcium in the bone matrix Osteocytes
Bone ______ is made of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate matrix
The 4 classifications of bones are Long, ______, flat & _________ Short, irregular
There are __ classifications (shapes) of bones four
____ bones are longer than they are wide Long
Examples of long bones are the Femur, humerus, tibia, ulna, radius, fibula (any of these)
The parts of a long bone are the Diaphysis, Metaphysis, & __________ Epiphysis
The diaphysis is also called the shaft
The shaft of a long bone is called the Diaphysis
The ends of long bones are called the epiphysis
The metaphysis is between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
The metaphysis contains the growth plate called the _________ _____ epiphyseal disc
The marrow canal of a long bone is called the Medullary
The medullary is also known as the _______ canal marrow
The medullary canal contains _______ bone marrow yellow
Yellow bone marrow is mostly made up of _______ tissue adipose
_____ bones are about the same length as width short
Carpals and Tarsals are examples of _____ bones short
The skull, ribs and ilia are examples of _____ bones flat
Vertebrae and facial bones are examples of ________ bones irregular
Examples of flat bones are the _____, ____ & ilia skull & ribs
Examples of irregular bones are _______ & ______ bones vertebrae & facial
Short, flat, and irregular bones are all made of ______ bone covered with a thin layer of ______ bone Spongy, compact
Long bones are made of mostly ______ bone compact
________ cartilage covers the opposing surfaces of synovial joints Articular
Articular cartilage covers the opposing surfaces of ________ joints synovial
Articular cartilage is very ______ to reduce _______ smooth, friction
___________ is the fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers bone Periosteum
Periosteum is the fibrous connective tissue that covers _____ Bone
_________ fibers merge with ligaments and tendons to attach them to the bone Periosteum
Periosteum fibers merge with _________ and ______ to attach them to bone Ligaments and tendons
The ___________ of a bone contains blood vessels and nerves periosteum
The ___________ contains osteoblasts that become active after injury periosteum
The periosteum contains __________ that become active after injury osteoblasts
During embryonic growth, the skeleton is a template/model of _______ or _____ _________ tissue cartilage or fibrous connective tissue
In embryonic bone growth there are __ types of bone development two
The two types of embryonic bone growth are _____________ ossification & _____________ossification intramembranous, endochondral
Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification are the two types of _________ ____ growth embryonic bone
Osteoblasts form bone matrix in a process called ossification
Epiphyseal discs close between age 16-25 under the influence of ________ or _________ estrogen or testosterone
__________ break down bone by resorption Osteoclasts
Osteoclasts break down bone by _________ resorption
Osteoclasts function in maintenance and _______ of bone repair
The condition of decreased bone matrix which causes weakness and a higher potential for fracture is called Osteoporosis
The skeleton has __ divisions two
The two divisions of the skeleton are Axial and appendicular
The _____ skeleton forms the axis of the body axial
The skull, spine and rib cages form the _____ skeleton axial
The _________ skeleton forms the appendages and girdles appendicular
The appendicular skeleton forms the _______ and ______ appendages and girdles
__________ are fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone Ligaments
Ligaments are fibrous connective tissue that connects ______ to ______ bone to bone
Ligaments are _______ connective tissue that connects bone to bone fibrous
_______ attach muscles to bone Tendons
Tendons attach _______ to bone muscle
A foramen is a ____ or ________ hole or opening
A hole or opening is called a ________ foramen
A depression or dent is called a ______ Fossa
A fossa is a ________ or ____ depression or dent
A crest is a _____ or ____ ridge or edge
A _____ is a ridge or edge crest
A meatus is a ______ or __________ tunnel or passageway
A ______ is a tunnel or passageway meatus
A process is a __________ or something that sticks out Projection
A _______ is a projection or something that sticks out process
A ____ is a flat projection Facet
A facet is a flat __________ projection
A condyle is a _________ projection rounded
A _____ is a rounded projection condyle
A plate is a flat ________ projection
A _____ is a flat projection plate
A tubercle is a _____ projection round
A ______ is a round projection tubercle
A tuberosity is a _______ projection round
A ________ is a round projection tuberosity
The skull contains _ cranial bones, 14 facial bones, 6 auditory bones, and the hyoid bone eight
The cranial bones surround the _______ and protect it and the eyes and ears brain
The _______ bones surround the brain and protect it and the eyes and ears cranial
The eight cranial bones are the frontal b., parietal b., temporal b., ________ b., sphenoid b., and the ethmoid b. occipital
The joints of the skull are called _______ sutures
Sutures are ____________ joints immovable
The coronal suture is between the ______ and _______ bones Frontal and parietal
The squamosal suture is between the _______ and _______ bones parietal and temporal
The Lambdoidal suture is between the _______ and ______ bones Parietal and accipital
The sagittal suture is between _______ bones Parietal
The mandible is the ______ ____ bone lower jaw
The ________ is the lower jaw bone mandible
The maxillae are the _____ ___ bones upper jaw
The ________ are the upper jaw bones Maxillae
The nasal bone forms the ______ of the nose bridge
The _____ bone forms the bridge of the nose nasal
The lacrimal bone forms the medial _____ of the ____ orbit of the eye
The ______ bone forms the medial orbit of the eye lacrimal
The zygomatic bones form the _____ bones of the face cheek
The __________ bones form the cheek bones of the face zygomatic
The palatine bones form the _________ part of the hard palate posterior
The _________ bones form the posterior part of the hard palate palatine
The vomer forms the lower part of the ______ ______ nasal septum
The ______ forms the lower part of the nasal septum vomer
The vertebral column is also called the ______, ______ column or backbone spine, spinal
The _________ _______ is also called the spine, spinal column or backbone vertebral column
There are _ cervical vertebrae seven
There are seven _______ vertebrae cervical
There are __ thoracic vertebrae twelve
There are twelve _________ vertebrae thoracic
There are __ lumbar vertebrae five
There are __ fused vertebrae in the sacrum five
There are _-_ fused vertebrae in the coccyx 4-5
The ____ of the vertebra is the weight bearing part body
The ______ process of a vertebra is the posterior projection Spinous
The spinous process of a vertebra is the ________ projection posterior
The ________ processes of a vertebra are the lateral projections Transverse
The transverse processes of a vertebra are the _______ projections lateral
The normal curves of the spine curve _________ to posterior anterior
The curves of the cervical and lumbar spine are called Lordosis
The curves of the thoracic and sacral spine are called Kyphosis
_______ curves of the spine are NOT normal Lateral
Lateral curves of the spine is called _________ if greater than 15 degrees Scoliosis
The rib cage has __ pairs of ribs and a sternum twelve
The sternum has three parts, the ___________, body, and _________ process manubrium, xiphoid
The manubrium is the ___ part of the sternum top
The main part of the sternum is also called the gladiolum
Ribs 1-7 are called _____ ribs true
True ribs articulate directly with the sternum
Ribs 8-10 are called ______ ribs false
Ribs 11 & 12 are called ________ ribs floating
Floating ribs do not articulate with the ________ sternum
The shoulder girdle attaches the ___ to the axial skeleton arm
The shoulder girdle includes the _______ & _______ scapula & clavicle
The scapula is also known as the ________ _____ shoulder blade
The ________ fossa is the lateral depression for the head of the humerus glenoid
The ________ process is the attachment for bicipital tendons Coracoid
The ___________ process attaches to the clavicle to form the AC joint Acromicon
The ________ is the long bone of the upper arm humerus
The _______ tubercle is the attachment of the deltoid muscle to the humerus deltoid
The distal end of the humerus articulates with the ____ to form a hinge joint and the _____ to form a pivot joint Ulna, radius
The _____ articulates with the head of the radius Capitulum
The capitulum articulates with the head of the radius
The ________ articulates with the semilunar notch of the ulna trochlea
The trochlea articulates with the semilunar notch of the ulna
The olecranon process is the bump that we call our elbow
The _______ is the lateral of the two forearm bones radius
The radius bone allows for pronation and _________ of the hand supination
The ______ bone allows for pronation and supination of the hand radius
The _______ are the eight wrist bones carpals
The carpals of the wrist form a ______ joint gliding
____________ are the long bones of the hand Metacarpals
The carpal to thumb phalange joint is a ________ joint saddle
_________ are the finger bones Phalanges
The pelvic girdle is also known as the pelvis
The bones of the pelvis are the ______, ______, & _______ pubis, ischium, & ilium
Female pelvises are _______ than males wider
The ___________ is the socket for the head of the femur acetabulum
The ______ is the long bone of the thigh femur
The _______ trochanter is the lateral projection on the proximal end of the femur greater
The greater ________ anchors the abductors to the femur trochanter
The _______ trochanter is the medial projection on the proximal end of the femur lesser
the lesser ________ anchors the extensors and adductors to the femur trochanter
The patella is also know as the ________ kneecap
The kneecap is also known as the ________ patella
The _____ is the weight bearing bone of the lower leg tibia
The anterior crest forms the _____ _________ (ridge on the front of the leg) tibial tuberosity
The medial malleolus is better known as the ankle
The ______ is the non=weight-bearing bone of the lower leg fibula
The _______ are the seven ankle bones tarsals
The tarsals are the seven bones of the ankle
The proper name for the heel bone is calcaneus
The calcaneus is the largest ______ bone tarsal
The foot bones are the ____________ metatarsals
The metatarsals are the long ____ bones foot
The proper name for the big toe is the hallux
The hallux is the proper name for the big/great toe
Joints are classified based on amount of movement
Synarthrosis joints are ___________ joints immobile
Cranial and facial sutures are examples of ___________ joints synarthrosis
Amphiarthrosis joints are ________ ________ joints slightly movable
The pubic symphysis is an example of a _____________ joint amphiarthrosis
Diarthrosis joints are __________ ________ joints freely movable
Shoulder, knee and elbow joints are examples of _________ joints Diarthrosis
All synovial joints are __________ joints diarthrosis
All diarthrosis joints are _______ joints synovial
A ______ is a sac of synovial fluid that provides cushion in a synovial joint bursa
Synovial joints have a _________ membrane that lines the capsule synovial
Synovial membranes secrete synovial fluid to __________ & _______ the cartilage lubricate & nourish
_________ cartilage is on the joint surface of each bone Hyaline
Hyaline cartilage is on the ______ ______ of each bone joint surface
The type of bone that is made of osteons is ________ bones compact
The type of bone that is NOT made of osteons is ________ bones spongy
Flat and irregular bones are made primarily of ________ bone Spongy
The shafts of long bones are made primarily of ________ bone compact
Compact bone forms the ______ of a long bone diaphysis
Bone tissue is made of cells called _________ and the non-living part is called the ______ osteocytes, matrix
Bone matrix is made primarily of ________ salts & phosphorus calcium
New bone matrix for growth is produced by cells called osteoblasts
Reabsorption of bone matrix is the function of cells called osteoclasts
The function of osteoclasts is to reabsorb bone ______ matrix
Red bone marrow produces _____, _____,& _____ RBC's, WBC's, & platelets
All kinds of blood cells are produced in the _____ bone marrow Red
Yellow bone marrow found in the diaphysis of long bones is mostly ______ tissue adipose
The embryonic cranial bones are first made of ________ __________ tissue fibrous connective
Compression of a baby's head during birth is permitted by the presence of _______ between cranial bones fontanels
The nutrient needed to absorb calcium is vitamin D
Two vitamins necessary for the calcification process in growing bones are vitamin _ & _ A & C
Protein in the diet is needed to form the _____ in the bone matrix of a growing child collagen
The hormone that increases the reabsorption of calcium from bones is ___________ hormone parathyroid
The hormone that decreases the reabsorption of calcium from bones is calcitonin
The hormones that promote the closure of the epiphyseal discs are _______ & ________ estrogen & testoterone
The hormone that contributes to bone growth by increasing the rate of mitosis is growth hormone
The skull is made lighter by the presence of _______ in some of the bones sinuses
The heart, liver and lungs are protected from mechanical injury by the rib cage
The mandible and temporal bones form a ______ joint condyloid
Of condyloid, gliding and symphysis joints, __________ is the one that is NOT a synovial joint symphysis
Created by: pamela0116



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