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Culture and Heritage set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practices that characterizes a company or an organization
Heritage “something transmitted by or acquired from a predecessor”
Other influences on Culture and Heritage include Air Force in the Profession of Arms, Traditions and History, Military Culture and Airmanship and Norms of Conduct and Professional Standards
Diversity composite of individual characteristics, experiences and abilities consistent with the Air Force Mission and Core Values
Primary Dimensions are characteristics we cannot change (Gender, age, race, Sexual Affection/orientation, Mental and Physical abilities/qualities, Ethnicity/Culture)
Secondary Dimensions characteristics we can change (Work ethic, income, marital status, experience, religious and philosophical beliefs, personality, education, strengths, language abilities, temperaments)
EO refers to legal and regulatory mandates prohibiting discriminations based on race, color, sex, national origin, religion, age, disability, and reprisal
AA refers to voluntary or mandated programs developed for the purpose of overcoming imbalances in the workforce that affect designated groups, such as, minority groups, women, veterans, and disabled
Social Sensitivity Through interpersonal communication Airmen must develop a keen awareness and understanding of others’ emotions, feelings, personalities, temperaments, strengths, cultural differences, values, and beliefs
5 Characteristics of a Diversity Supportive Organization Act Proactively, Leadership-Driven, Encourage Ownership of Initiatives, Think Inclusively and Mainstream Diversity
Socio-Behavioral Tendencies (SBT’s) thought processes we use to help make sense of the world we live in. (Assumptions, Stereotypes, Social Biases, Perceptions, Perspectives, and Collusion are SBT’s that create Prejudices, which lead to Discrimination)
FAIR Way Feedback, Assistance, Inclusion, Respect
The heart of the FAIR Way is the free flow of open two way communication
Wingman Concepts Ask your Wingman, Care for your Wingman, Escort your Wingman
4-Dimensions of Wellness Physical Health, Emotional Health, Spiritual Health, Social Health
Suicide Awareness The heightened individual and community awareness of suicide, suicide risk factors, and the fact that suicide is only the tip of the iceberg of psychosocial problems.
Risk Factors Include relationship difficulties, substance abuse, legal, financial, medical, mental health, and occupational problems, along with depression, social isolation, and previous suicide threats/gestures, which may increase the probability of self-harm.
Suicide Prevention A community based approach that includes family, friends, and many different professional and social service providers, committed to reducing suicide.
Macronutrients chemicals found in large quantities in our food that we need to live and grow
Micronutrients needed by the body in much smaller amounts than macronutrients
Functional Training Any exercise that has a direct relationship to the activities of daily life
Form Over Speed and Intensity (FOSI) ensures motor skills are developed before speed and intensity, ensures safety
High Intensity Exercise Endurance (HIEE) the application of maximal physical effort systematically applied to a technically developed motor skill
Functional Endurance Intensity (FEI) functional workouts with high intensity exercises
Airmanship refers to all Airmen, skilled practitioners and combatants of air, space, and cyberspace warfare
The Oath of Enlistment instills a sense of meaning and purpose within each member of the Armed Forces.
The Profession of Arms means to ensure national security, protect America’s citizens, preserve the American way of life, safeguard America’s future and place our country’s and services needs above our own.
Progressive Professionalism (P2) levels of professionalism
Direction, Discipline, and Recognition (DDR) is the foundation of P2 and is critical to our progression and self-development as professionals.
The Air Force Core Values our inner voice of self-control and the basis for the trust imperative in today’s military.
Warrior Ethos a tenacious mentality ignited by a hardiness of spirit, courage and resiliency
Hardiness of Spirit the stout internal force that can be used to get through challenging times mentally or physically
Courage the mental or moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty
Moral Courage the power and determination to follow what one believes to be right, regardless of cost to one’s self
Physical Courage is the observable actions one takes when faced with fear, pain, uncertainty, or danger
Resiliency one’s ability to withstand, recover and grow in the face of stressors and changing demands
Drug any controlled substance, or any intoxicating substance, other than alcohol, that is inhaled, injected, consumed, or introduced into the body in any manner to alter mood or function.
Substance abuse the use of any illicit drug, the misuse of any prescribed medication, or the abuse of alcohol.
Prevention one way leaders can ensure Airmen adhere to set standards
Ways leaders can prevent substance abuse issues Environment, Setting the Example, Documentation and Actions
Methods to ID Substance Abusers Self ID, Commander referrals, Medical ID, Substance Related Incident and Drug Testing
Consequences of Stress Physiological Symptoms, Psychological Symptoms, and Behavioral Symptoms
Stress Management Strategies Individual approaches, organizational approaches and wellness programs
Strength Based Leadership Philosophy recognizes talents and strengths
Four Domains of Leadership Strengths Executing, Relationship Building, Strategic Thinking, and Influencing
Followers Four Basic Needs Trust, Compassion, Stability, Hope
Blind Spots An aspect of our personality that is not known to self but is apparent to others
Johari’s Window A matrix of 4 quadrants used to determine how you typically operate as levels of self -awareness and other’s awareness of you change
Resource Stewardship the careful and responsible management of resources under one’s control
Budget Process a perpetual cycle of planning, programming, revising, adjusting, and spending that lasts one FY from 1 Oct to 30 Sep and is divided into quarters
Financial Execution Plan must be developed and approved prior to 30 Sep in order to be ready to implement on 1 Oct for the new fiscal year
1st Quarter Funds allocated, Cost Centers begin working 1st BER, 25% of budget spent/obligated.
2nd Quarter RA Submits 1st BER in Jan, Cost Centers submit inputs for next FY’s FEP, 50% of budget spent/obligated
3rd Quarter Cost Centers submit updated/revised BER and 2nd BER occurs in May, 75% of budget spent/obligated
4th Quarter EOY FY closeout begins and runs until midnight, 30 Sep, 15 Sep Congress approves next FY budget, FY ends, 100% of budget spent
Antideficiency Act a law where Congress exercises its constitutional control over the public purse
Four manpower competencies organization structure, program allocation and control, requirements determination and performance management
Be the N.C.O Nurture, champion and ownership
Strategic Communication to understand and engage key audiences in order to advance the US Government interests, policies, and objectives
Purpose of Strategic Communication to influence particular audiences
Cross Cultural Awareness can reduce battlefield friction, the fog of war and improve the military’s ability to accomplish its mission by providing insight into the intent of the groups in the battlespace, thus allowing military leaders to outthink and out maneuver them
Culture a shared set of traditions, belief systems and behaviors
Cultural Diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole
Values reflect how people see relationships, the world, and themselves and can vary significantly across cultures
High Context refers to societies or groups where people have close connections over a long period of time
Low Context refers to societies where people tend to have many connections but of shorter duration or for some specific reason
Cross Cultural Competency (3C) the ability to comprehend quickly and then act appropriately to attain desired results in culturally diverse environments, even though you may not necessarily have prior exposure to the particular society and its unique culture
AF 3C Model how you influence your environment through active learning approaches (education, training and experience)
12 Domains of Culture broad categories under which humans commonly organize cultural knowledge, belief and behavior
12 Domains of Culture Family & Kinship, Religion & Spirituality, Sex & Gender, Political & Social Relations, Economics & Resources, Time & Space, Language & Communications, Technology & Material, History & Myth, Sustenance & Health, Aesthetics & Recreation,Learning & Knowledge
Follower one in the service of another, one that follows the opinions or teachings of another, one that imitates another
5 Qualities of Effective Followership Self-Management, Committed, Competent, Integrity, and Initiative
Feedback to offer or suggest information or ideas as a reaction from an inquiry
Advice an opinion or recommendation offered as a guide to action or conduct
Diagnose, Adapt and Communicate (DAC) used to ensure mission accomplishment and to develop and inspire others within the unit
Power the ability or potential to influence decisions and control resources
4 Types of Position Power Coercive, Connection, Reward and Legitimate
Coercive Power Deals with a leader’s perceived ability to provide sanctions, punishment, or consequences for not performing
Connection Power Comes from the perception of the leader’s association with people of influence inside or outside of the organization
Reward Power Deals with leaders who are able to provide things that people like
Legitimate Power Comes from a leader’s title, role, or position within the organization itself
Personal Power the extent to which followers respect, feel good about, are committed to their leader, and see their own goals being satisfied by the goals of their leader
3 Types of Personal Power Referent, Information and Expert
Referent Power Based largely on a leader’s personal traits. Likeable and charismatic.
Information Power Based on a leader’s access to data and information that is important to others
Expert Power Leaders gain power and the ability to influence through their education, experience, and job knowledge
5 Contemporary Motivational theories ABC’s of Behavior, X & Y Theory, Hierarchy of Needs, Expectation Theory, and Motivational Profile Theory
Membership level Gives time to organization out of dependency. For themselves.
Performance level More involved in organization as long as they are recognized. Complain about problems in the organization and may or may not offer solutions.
Involvement level Performing for their own reasons. Motivation comes from within. Produce good quality work because they enjoy what they do.
Types of Rewards System Level, Supervisory or Personal
Ethical Leadership combines ethical decision-making and ethical behavior to make ethical decisions and behave in ethical ways
Values core beliefs we hold regarding what is right and fair in terms of our actions and our interactions with others
Morals values that we attribute to a system of beliefs that help us define right from wrong, good vs bad
Ethics a set of standards of conduct that guide decisions and actions based on duties derived from core values
Military Ethics deal specifically with those values and expected rules of the profession that are appropriate to actions taken within the military environment
Ethical Relativism the belief that nothing is objectively right or wrong and that the definition of right or wrong depends on the prevailing view of a particular individual, culture, or historical period
Categorical Imperative an absolute, unconditional requirement that is both required and justified as an end in itself
Ethical Dilemma a situation where one is forced to choose between two alternatives
USAF Ethical Codes make it possible for NCO’s to make proper ethical decisions and behave in an ethical manner in any given situation. (AFI 36-2618, Airman’s Creed, PDG, Code of Conduct, etc…)
3 O’s Owing, ordering, and oughting (know who and what we owe, display proper ordering and understand what Airmen should do or ought to do)
3 P’s Principle, purpose, and people (telling the truth first, completing the mission and people last)
3 R’s Rules, results, and realities (Gives ethical guidance, dealing with the consequences and recognizing the importance of the situation)
3 D’s Discern, declare, and do (discern the truth, declare the truth and do what we discerned and declared)
Ethical Traps confuse or make you uncertain as to what action or behavior should be taken (Ethical relativism, loyalty syndrome, worry over image and drive for success)
Ethical Relativism making decisions based on personal values/beliefs rather than on military rules, regulations, and codes of conduct
Loyalty Syndrome making decisions based on respect and/or loyalty to an individual, unit, or organization etc. rather than on military rules, regulations and codes of conduct
Worry over Image making decisions based on how the decision will impact one’s reputation/standing among peers, subordinates, supervisors, community etc. rather than on military rules, regulations and codes of conduct
Drive for Success making decisions based on a “win at all cost” attitude rather than on military rules, regulations, and codes of conduct
Dr. Toner’s 6 Tests The Shame Test, The Community Test, The Legal Test, The Situation Test, The Consequences Test, and The God Test
Prudence First, Justice Second principle doing things just because you can rather than considering the circumstances or what’s right
National forces Security Act of 1947 created the National Security Council (NSC)
JCS consists of CJCS, VCJCS, and the Service Chiefs of the 4 military branches
CJCS the principal military advisor to the President, the NSC, and the SecDef
Operational Chain of Command used to employ forces and runs from the President, through the SecDef, to the combatant commanders
Administrative Chain of Command Used to recruit, organize, train, and equip forces and runs from the President through the SecDef to the Secretaries of the Military Departments
Combatant Command a command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander and composed of significant assigned components of two or more Military Departments
Joint Task Force Established when the mission has a specific limited objective. Geographical or functional.
Joint Force Commander A general term applied to a CCDR, subunified commander, or JTF commander authorized to exercise combatant command (command authority) or operational control over a joint force
Service Component Commands Assigned to a CCDR, consists of a Service component CDR and the Service forces that have been assigned to that CCDR
Functional Component Commands CCDR’s and CDR’s of subordinate unified commands and JFC’s have the authority to establish functional component commands to control military operations
Combat Support Agencies Agencies that provide combat support to joint forces. Provide CCDR’s specialized support and operate in a supporting role
Geographic Combatant Commands Assigned a geographic AOR within which their missions are accomplished with assigned and/or attached forces
USAFRICOM Responsible for US military relations in 53 African countries
USCENTCOM Promotes cooperation among nations, responds to crises, and deters or defeats state and non-state aggression, and supports development and, when necessary, reconstruction
USEUCOM Covers almost 1/5th of the planet and is responsible for US military relations with NATO and 51 countries on 2 continents
USNORTHCOM Conducts homeland defense, civil support, and security cooperation to defend and secure the US and its interests
USPACOM Encompasses about ½ the earth’s surface and protects and defends the territories of the US, its people, and its interests
USSOUTHCOM Responsible for providing contingency planning, operations, and security cooperation for Central and South America, the Caribbean, Cuba
Functional Combatant Commands Support GCC’s or may conduct assigned missions independently
USJFCOM Responsible for providing mission-ready joint-capable forces and supporting the development and integration of joint, interagency, and multinational capabilities to meet the present and future operational needs of the joint force
USSOCOM Oversees Special Ops Commands of the Army, AF, Navy & Marines.Conducts covert & clandestine msns like unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, special recon, psychological ops, civil affairs, direct action, counter-terrorism & war on drugs ops
USTRANSCOM The single manager of America’s global defense transportation system and is tasked with the coordination of people and transportation assets to allow the US to project and sustain forces, whenever, wherever, and for as long as they are needed
USSTRATCOM Charged with space operations, information operations, missile defense, global command and control, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, global strike and strategic deterrence, and combating WMD’s
ACC HQ at Langley AFB. Orgs, trains, equips & deploys combat ready forces to spt combatant commanders, operates fighter, attack, bomber, intel, surveillance and recon, conducts info ops/provides C2 Comm and intel sys to theater commanders and combat forces
AETC HQ at Randolph AFB. Develops America’s Airmen today, for tomorrow. Recruits Airmen,provides BMT,technical,flying training,medical, space/missile & cyber training, and PME and degree granting professional education and training
AFGSC HQ at Barksdale AFB. Develops & provides combat-ready forces for nuclear deterrence and global strike ops—safe, secure, effective—to support the POTUS and combatant commanders, organizes and trains the Air Force’s intercontinental ballistic missile wings
AFMC HQ at Wright-Patterson AFB. Delivers war-winning technology, acquisition support, sustainment and expeditionary capabilities to the warfighter
AFRC HQ at Robins AFB. Provides AF with 20% of its capability with only about 4% of the total AF budget, spanning a wide variety of missions, aerial spray missions, flies hurricane hunter missions for the NWS and is responsible for the IMA program
AFSPC HQ at Peterson AFB. Responsible for organizing, training, and equipping mission-ready space and cyberspace forces and capabilities for North American Aerospace Defense Command, USSTRATCOM, and other combatant commanders worldwide
AMC HQ at Scott AFB. Provides airlift and aerial refueling for all of America’s armed forces. They also provide Aeromedical Evacuation and Global Reach Laydown (GRL)
PACAF HQ at JB Pearl Harbor-Hickam. Provides PACAF capabilities to defend the homeland, promote stability,humanitarian relief to decisive combat employment, conducts multinational exercises and host international exchange events to foster partnerships for regio
USAFE HQ at Ramstein AB. Executes the US European Command mission with forward-based air power to provide forces for global operations, ensure strategic access, assure allies, deter aggression and build partnerships
AFSOC HQ at Hulbert Field. Responsible to USSOCOM for the readiness of AF special operations forces to conduct the war on terrorism and to disrupt, defeat and destroy terrorist networks that threaten the US, its citizens and interests worldwide
Army Core Values Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, Personal Courage
Navy/Marines Core Values Honor, Courage, and Commitment
Coast Guard Core Values Honor, Respect, Devotion to Duty
Feedback the active communication process where you evaluate or judge subordinate performance and respond by either promoting a change in behavior or by reinforcing present performance
Counseling a type of communication used to empower subordinates to achieve goals
Personal Situation Counseling event-oriented, reactive in nature, and occurs during or after a situation
Performance/Professional Growth Counseling is proactive in nature, it occurs in preparation for, or anticipation of, future events
Counseling Guidelines Outline, Environment, Length of Sessions, Inform Counselees, Plan of Action
Counseling Approaches Directive, Nondirective, Combined
Directive Supervisor does most of the talking, makes decisions, determines the content, and assumes responsibility of the session
Nondirective This puts the responsibility on the subordinate. The supervisor is there to provide information the subordinate may need.
Combined The most common approach. It creates trust and emphasizes that subordinates must be responsible for planning and decision making.
Subordinate-Centered Communication Active listening, responding, questioning, silence
Active Listening Give full attention. Don’t just listen, try to understand the message
Responding Use appropriate eye contact and gestures
Questioning Question to obtain valuable information
Silence Silence for a short period is an effective way to get people to open up
Interpersonal Communication a face-to-face, multidirectional exchange of verbal messages and nonverbal signals between two or more people, for the purpose of gaining a shared meaning
Adaptability the ability to adjust self to changed, unexpected or ambiguous situations by actively seeking information and by demonstrating openness and support of different and innovative change ideas
Cognitive Flexibility the ability to use different thinking strategies and mental frameworks
Emotional Flexibility the ability to vary your approach to dealing with your own emotions and those of others
Dispositional Flexibility the ability to remain optimistic and at the same time realistic
Change Management a proactively coordinated and structured period of transition using a systematic approach that addresses planning for the change, implementing, monitoring, and controlling the change effort, and effecting the stakeholders
Roles in the Change Process Change sponsors, change agents, change targets
Change Sponsors Initiate change because they have the power to determine why, when, and how changes occur
Change Agents Responsible for implementing change initiated by the change sponsor
Change Targets The key players and stakeholders who actually undergo the change
Janssen’s Model of Change Comfort, Denial, Confusion, Renewal
Comfort (Stage 1) Things are routine
Denial (Stage 2) Rather not deal with the new and just stay with the old
Confusion (Stage 3) Accept the change and begin to grapple for ways to proceed from the known to the unknown
Renewal (Stage 4) Accept the change
Levels of Change Knowledge, Attitude, Individual Behavior, Group Behavior
Knowledge Generally the easiest change to bring about
Attitude More difficult to change because they are emotionally charged (+ or -)
Individual Behavior Significantly more difficult and time-consuming than the previous levels. Habits often stand in the way of this type of change
Group Behavior The most difficult to change
Innovators They immediately embrace new ideas. Big picture thinkers
Early Adopters Usually social and opinion leaders who are often popular, educated, and able to see a competitive advantage in adopting new ideas early
Early Majority Provides an important link in the change process because they tend to represent mainstream thinking
Late Majority In the middle of the curve that are hampered by feelings of insecurity and skepticism, which prevents them from taking risks
Laggards The last people to embrace new ideas and they influence no one
Directive Change Cycle Imposed by some external force and used with Position Power. Begins with change imposed upon the group or organization (Group, Individual Behavior, Attitudes, Knowledge)
Participative Change Cycle Used with Personal Power and implemented when new knowledge is made available to the individual or group. Success is dependent upon the group’s positive attitude and commitment in the direction of the desired change (Knowledge, Attitude, Individual Behav
The Change Process Unfreezing, changing, refreezing
Unfreezing (Phase 1) Recognize the need for change (most neglected)
Changing (Phase 2) The actual modification of technology, tasks, structure, or people (implement change)
Refreezing (Phase 3) Lock in the change and establish stability (put down roots)
Conflict The process that results when one person or group perceives another person or group is frustrating, or about to frustrate, an important concern
Destructive conflict creates barriers to cooperation, communication, and impacts morale, diverting efforts from important tasks and issues
Constructive conflict leads to solutions, resolutions, and higher levels of understanding and communication between individuals or groups.
Sources of Conflict Communication, interests, structural, personal behavior, worldview
Communication Failure to communicate or lack of communication
Interests Perceived competition over resources, win-lose assumptions, and usually involve money, physical resources, time, procedural issues, or psychological issues.
Structural Size, Participation, Line-Staff Distinctions, Rewards, Resource Interdependence
Personal Behavior Values, Perceptions, and Personalities
Worldview Conformity, Achievement, Tradition, Power, Universalism, Self-direction, Security
High Context Culture refers to societal groups or cultures whose close connections with one another have existed for a long time
Low Context Culture refers to groups and cultures where connections between members have not existed as long as those of the high context group or culture
3 Things to Consider for Conflict Management Who you’re dealing with, what the stakes are, how critical is the situation
Cooperation Refers to how willing a person or group is to satisfy the other person’s or group’s needs
Assertiveness Refers to how strongly a person seeks to satisfy his or her own needs
Competing/Forcing Overwhelm an opponent with formal authority, threats, or the use of power (I win, you lose)
Collaborating Involves an attempt to satisfy the concerns of both sides through honest discussion (I win, you win and takes a long time)
Compromising Intermediate amounts of assertiveness and cooperation and strives for partial satisfaction of both parties’ desires by seeking a middle ground (Both win/lose)
Accommodating Combines low assertiveness and high cooperation—the opposite of competing (I lose, you win)
Avoiding Combination of low assertiveness and low cooperation leads to an avoiding style (Put off, do it later)
Distributive Negotiating Assumes resources are limited, single-issue negotiations and considered zero sums. Attempting to divide, divvy, or distribute, something. Value claiming uses hardball tactics
Integrative Negotiating Sees the possibility for mutually beneficial, value creating cooperation between the parties involved. Both parties are partners in the negotiation. Value creating
Active Listening When you make a conscious effort to hear not only the words that another person is saying but, more importantly, to try and understand the total message being sent.
Active Listening Techniques Include Minimal Encouragements, Paraphrasing, Emotion Labeling, Mirroring, Open-Ended Questions, I messages, and Effective Pauses.
Cooperative Negotiation Strategy Concentrates on the problem, the process, and the relationships and falls in the integrative negotiation strategy. (Not a win, lose situation)
Step 1: Positions Establish you position and estimate your counterpart’s position
Step 2: Interests Prioritize your most important interest and your counterpart’s most important interest (what you want out of it)
Step 3: BATNA Last step in planning phase that involves determining what you’re willing to give up
Step 4: Brainstorming Using divergent thinking skills to develop ideas that will satisfy the interests you have developed (Getting the best deal possible)
Step 5: Solution End result. Select the best idea
A Group a gathering of persons (or objects) located together
A Team a group organized to work together
AFDD1-1 states that “The primary task of a military organization is to perform its mission
Creators focus on the possibilities, generate new ideas and fresh concepts, and looking outside the box
Advancers focus on the interaction, communicate new ideas, and carry them forward
Refiners focus on the analysis, challenge all concepts, and analyze to detect flaws and potential problems
Executors focus on the realization, follow up on objectives, and implement ideas and solutions
Flexers can focus on everything. They are a combination of the 4 roles and adapt styles to fit needs.
P.E.P. Cycle the cycle that people go through when generating new ideas. Panic is when they think they will never have a good idea. Then, they move to Elation and think they have a great idea. And lastly, without encouragement or reassurance they move back to panic
The “Z” Process Where ideas go back-n-forth between the Creator-Advancer-Refiner before finally reaching the Executor
Team Dynamics An ongoing process involving interaction of individuals within a team to move toward or away from achieving the desired objective
The 5 C’s of a Team Community, Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Coaching
The 5 Common Pitfalls of a Team Absence of Trust, Fear of Conflict, Lack of Commitment, Avoidance of Accountability, and Inattention to Results
Stages of Team Development Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning & Transforming
Forming Stage Transitions people from member to group status and the group tests the boundaries of acceptable behavior
Storming Stage The most difficult stage for a team. The members acknowledge the intent of the team and the eventual goal. Team members begin to argue and debate the next move of the team.
Norming Stage When members reconcile disputes and agree to disagree. They abandon negative and unproductive energy. Emotional conflict is squelched.
Performing Stage When members have heightened morale and loyalty to the team and its success. Members work together to diagnose problems and the team is willing to share ideas freely.
Adjourning and Transforming Stage When the current objective has been met and the team either disperses or begins to work on another task.
Human Relations The relations between two or more people
Equal Opportunity and Treatment (EOT) Policy-Military States that the AF will conduct its affairs free from unlawful discrimination, according to US laws, and to provide equal opportunity and treatment for all military members irrespective of their color, national origin, race religion, or sex.
Equal Employment Opportunity(EEO) Policy-Civilian States that personnel management will be accomplished in a manner that is free from discrimination and provides equal opportunity for all applicants and employees regardless of their race, color, religion, age, sex, national origin, or handicapping condit
The AF Affirmative Employment Program (AEP) Designed to facilitate opportunities for the employment and advancement of underrepresented groups in the work force, remove artificial barriers in personnel systems and practices, and eliminate discrimination by act or inference.
Unlawful Discrimination Includes discrimination based on color, national origin, race, religion, or sex that is not otherwise authorized by law or regulation.
Personal Discrimination Individual actions taken to deprive a person or group of a right because of color, national origin, race, religion, or sex. Such discrimination can occur overtly, covertly, intentionally, or unintentionally.
Systemic Discrimination The action by an institution (or system) that, through its policies or procedures, deprives a person or group of a right because of color, national origin, race, religion, or sex. Such discrimination can occur overtly, covertly, intentionally, or unintent
Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination that involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature
Complaint An allegation of unlawful discrimination based on race, color, national origin, religion, or sex.
Equal Opportunity The right of all persons to participate in, and benefit from, programs and activities for which they are qualified. These programs and activities shall be free from social, personal, or institutional barriers that prevent people from rising to the highest
Human Relations Climate The prevailing perceptions of individuals concerning interpersonal relationships within their working, living, and social environment.
Prejudice A judgment against or an opinion contrary to anything without just grounds or sufficient knowledge.
Stereotype Exaggerated belief about a category of people. It rationalizes our conduct toward that category.
Racism Any attitude or action of a person or institutional structure that subordinates a person or group because of race.
Sexism Attitudes and beliefs that one sex is superior to another.
Sexual Assault Intentional sexual contact, characterized by use of force, threats, intimidation, abuse of authority, or when the victim does not or cannot consent. It impacts the Individual, Unit, and AF.
Perpetrator The criminal who assaults the victim.
Facilitator A person who enable, encourages, or creates a situation or environment that allows a perpetrator to act.
Bystander A person who sees the potential for a sexual assault.
Victim The person assaulted by the perpetrator.
Restricted Reporting Confidential, for AD military only, no law enforcement investigation, no Command involvement but has a medical exam, medical services, counseling services, and Victim advocate services.
Unrestricted Reporting Not confidential, for everyone, there is a law enforcement investigation, there is Command involvement, there is a medical exam, medical services, counseling services, and Victim advocate services.
SARC The first point of contact for reporting a sexual assault and is considered the center of gravity when it comes to issues of sexual assault.
Victim Advocates Individuals who are specially trained to support victims of sexual assault.
Victim Witness Assistance Program (VWAP) Liaisons are individuals who assist a victim during the military justice process.
Military Theory The scientific, artistic, and philosophical idea or view relating to principles, methods, rules, and operations of war.
Unity of Command Emphasizes that all efforts should be directed and coordinated toward a common objective under one responsible commander.
Objective Pertains to directing military operations toward a defined and attainable goal that contributes to strategic, operational and tactical aims.
Offensive To seize, retain, and exploit the initiative
Mass Concentrates the effects of combat power at a time and place that is most advantageous to achieve decisive results.
Maneuver Forces the enemy to react, allows successful friendly operations, and reduces friendly vulnerabilities.
Economy of Force The carful employment and distribution of forces.
Security To never permit the enemy to acquire unexpected advantage.
Surprise Leverages the security principle by attacking the enemy at a time, place, or in a manner for which they are not prepared.
Simplicity Calls for avoiding unnecessary complexity in organizing, preparing, planning, and conducting military operations.
Basic Doctrine Foundation of all other doctrines and sets the tone and vision for future doctrine development. It provides a broad, fundamental, an continual guidance on how US forces are organized, trained, equipped, sustained, and employed. Changes less rapidly than
Operational Doctrine Describes a more detailed organization of forces and applies the principles of basic doctrine to military actions.
Tactical Doctrine Describes the proper employment of specific AF assets, individually or in concert with other assets, to accomplish detailed objectives. It is codified as tactics, techniques, and procedures in AFTTP 3- Series manuals. Changes the quickest out of the 3 d
National Security Strategy The policy of the US to seek and support democratic movements and institutions in every nation and culture, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world. To achieve this we must apply strategic approach in 4 national interests: Security, Prospe
National Defense Strategy Protects the American people through 5 key objectives: Defend the Homeland, Win the Long War, Promote Security, Deter Conflict, and Win our Nation’s Wars.
National Military Strategy Derives objectives, missions, and capability requirements from an analysis of the NSS, the NDS, and the security environment. NMS establishes 3 military objectives: Protect the US against External Attacks and Aggression, Prevent Conflict and Surprise Att
Crisis An incident or situation involving a threat to a nation, its territories, citizens, military forces, possessions, or vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a condition of diplomatic, economic, political, or military importance that commitment o
Contingency An anticipated situation that likely would involve military forces in response to natural and man-made disasters, terrorists, subversives, military operations by foreign powers, or other situations as directed by the President or SecDef.
Joint Campaign A series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space in which elements of two or more military departments participate.
Traditional Warfare A confrontation between nation-states or coalitions/alliances of nation-states.
Irregular Warfare A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations.
Tactical actions Battles, engagements, and or strikes conducted by combat forces of a single or a JIIM, coordinated in time and place, to achieve strategic or operational objectives in an operational area. Tactics are at once both a science and an art.
Workplace Violence Any act of violence, against persons or property, threats, intimidation, harassment, or other inappropriate, disruptive behavior that cause fear for personal safety and/or involve a substantial risk of physical or emotional harm to individuals, or damage
Assault A violent physical or verbal attack, an unlawful threat, or an attempt to do violence or harm.
Aggravated Assault Causing serious physical injury to another.
Inaction Not taking action against workplace violence when warning signs are evident.
Zero tolerance policy States that severe disciplinary action will be taken against individuals engaged in workplace violence or threats of workplace violence.
Workplace bullying The repeated, unreasonable, and unwanted actions against individuals or groups with the intent to harass, intimidate, or degrade. Abuse or misuse of power considered psychological violence.
Proactive Steps to Prevent Violence in the Workplace Physical Security Measures, Pre-assignment Screening, Training, Evaluation
AFSO21 Focuses on generating efficiencies and improving combat capabilities across the AF and applies to all processes associated with the AF mission.
AFSO21 5 Desired Effects Increase productivity of our people, Increase critical equipment availability rates, Improve response time and agility, Sustain safe and reliable operations, Improve energy efficiency
AFSO21 3 Levels of Priority Just do it, Rapid Improvement Events, High Value Initiative
Just Do It Quick fix or simple answer to an obstacle in a process. Done by 1 person
Rapid Improvement Events (RIE) Last about a week and apply a series of problem solving steps.
High Value Initiative (HVI) Produce significant returns and require 4-6 months to successfully define and implement the required process changes.
Decision making The cognitive process that results in the selection of a course of action from among several alternative scenarios.
System 1 (Reactive Thinking) Relies heavily on situational cues, prominent memories, trial and error, and heuristic thinking (discovering solutions for self) to arrive quickly and confidently at judgments. Usually familiar situations that require immediate action.
System 2 (Reflective Thinking) Broad and informed problem solving and deliberate decision-making. Usually unfamiliar situations when there is time for more planning and comprehensive consideration. (Done before System 1)
Decision Making Process Situation appraisal, problem analysis, decision analysis, potential problem analysis
Situation Appraisal Used to separate, clarify, and prioritize concerns. When confusion is mounting, the correct approach is unclear, or priorities overwhelm plans, Situation Appraisal is the tool of choice.
Problem Analysis To find the cause of a positive or negative deviation, we would conduct a problem analysis. Through this analysis, we may find people, machinery, systems, or processes that are not performing as expected. Problem Analysis points to the relevant informatio
Decision Analysis A systematic procedure based on the thinking pattern that we all use when making choices. When the path ahead is uncertain, when there are too many choices, or the risk of making the wrong choice is high, Decision Analysis clarifies the purpose and balanc
Potential Problem Analysis To protect actions or plans, we would use a potential problem analysis. When a project simply must go well, risk is high, or myriad things could go wrong, Potential Problem Analysis reveals the driving factors and identifies ways to lower risk.
OODA Loop Individual approach to problem solving (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act)
Observe Determine there is a problem and why there is a problem
Orient Set goals and determine the root cause of the problem
Decide Decide the appropriate course of action
Act Implement new processes and monitor/analyze progress and effectiveness of solutions
Nuclear Deterrence The product of three inter-related factors which are a nation’s capability, multiplied by its will, multiplied by other’s perceptions of that capability and will. Capability x Will x Perception = Deterrence
Nuclear Weapon State (NWS) A nation which has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to 1 Jan 1967
Proliferation Includes activities by non-members of the NPT to secure, transport, and employs WMD
Non-proliferation Includes actions by members of the NPT to detect, secure, and dispose of these weapons
Non-Nuclear Weapon State (NNWS) A nation that hadn’t produced a nuclear weapon before 1 Jan 1967
Nuclear Surety Applies to all nuclear-related materials, personnel, and procedures to ensure no nuclear accidents, incidents, loss, theft, or unauthorized or accidental employments occur. Three key elements of nuclear surety are safety, security, and reliability.
Safety The application of engineering and management principles, criteria, and techniques to protect nuclear weapons against the risks and threats inherent in their environments within the constraints of operational effectiveness, time, and cost throughout all p
Security The total spectrum of procedures, facilities, equipment, and personnel employed to provide the protection against loss of custody, theft, or diversion of a nuclear weapon system, the protection against unauthorized access, and the protection against unaut
Nuclear Weapons System Reliability Maintained through an exhaustive testing, inspection, and maintenance program to guarantee the weapons will work if ever called upon.
Individual Reliability PRP and Two-person concept
PRP Ensures that only those persons whose behavior demonstrates integrity, reliability, trustworthiness, allegiance, and loyalty to the US shall be allowed to perform duties associated with nuclear weapons.
Two-Person Concept Requires the presence at all times of at least two persons, each certified PRP, knowledgeable and capable to perform the task at hand.
Nuclear Enterprise Consists of people, processes, procedures, and systems to conduct, execute, and support nuclear weapon systems and operations. (Total Capabilities)
Nuclear Weapons Related Material (NWRM) Select nuclear combat delivery system components and use control equipment that are designed sensitive, or needed to maintain and protect system integrity.
Weapons Storage Areas (WSAs) Heavily secured areas, inside the perimeter of a base, where nuclear weapons are stored and maintained in weapon (igloo) bunkers.
Prime Nuclear Airlift Force (PNAF) Any aircrew, aircraft, flightline, or other function that provides peacetime support of logistical airlift for nuclear weapons.
Weapons Storage Security System (WS3) A system including electronic controls and vaults built into the floors of Protective Aircraft Shelters (PAS)
Nuclear Employment Requires explicit orders from the President of the United States
New triad Has much more, consisting of strategic offensive and defensive capabilities that include nuclear and non-nuclear strike capabilities, active and passive defenses, and a robust research, development, and industrial infrastructure to develop, build, and mai
Nuclear Calamity The misshipment of sensitive missile components or the unauthorized movement of nuclear weapons
Culture and Heritage set of shared attitudes, values, goals and practices that characterizes a company or an organization
Heritage “something transmitted by or acquired from a predecessor”
Other influences on Culture and Heritage include Air Force in the Profession of Arms, Traditions and History, Military Culture and Airmanship and Norms of Conduct and Professional Standards
Diversity composite of individual characteristics, experiences and abilities consistent with the Air Force Mission and Core Values
Primary Dimensions are characteristics we cannot change (Gender, age, race, Sexual Affection/orientation, Mental and Physical abilities/qualities, Ethnicity/Culture)
Secondary Dimensions characteristics we can change (Work ethic, income, marital status, experience, religious and philosophical beliefs, personality, education, strengths, language abilities, temperaments)
EO refers to legal and regulatory mandates prohibiting discriminations based on race, color, sex, national origin, religion, age, disability, and reprisal
AA refers to voluntary or mandated programs developed for the purpose of overcoming imbalances in the workforce that affect designated groups, such as, minority groups, women, veterans, and disabled
Social Sensitivity Through interpersonal communication Airmen must develop a keen awareness and understanding of others’ emotions, feelings, personalities, temperaments, strengths, cultural differences, values, and beliefs
5 Characteristics of a Diversity Supportive Organization Act Proactively, Leadership-Driven, Encourage Ownership of Initiatives, Think Inclusively and Mainstream Diversity
Socio-Behavioral Tendencies (SBT’s) thought processes we use to help make sense of the world we live in. (Assumptions, Stereotypes, Social Biases, Perceptions, Perspectives, and Collusion are SBT’s that create Prejudices, which lead to Discrimination)
FAIR Way Feedback, Assistance, Inclusion, Respect
The heart of the FAIR Way is the free flow of open two way communication
Wingman Concepts Ask your Wingman, Care for your Wingman, Escort your Wingman
4-Dimensions of Wellness Physical Health, Emotional Health, Spiritual Health, Social Health
Suicide Awareness The heightened individual and community awareness of suicide, suicide risk factors, and the fact that suicide is only the tip of the iceberg of psychosocial problems.
Risk Factors Include relationship difficulties, substance abuse, legal, financial, medical, mental health, and occupational problems, along with depression, social isolation, and previous suicide threats/gestures, which may increase the probability of self-harm.
Suicide Prevention A community based approach that includes family, friends, and many different professional and social service providers, committed to reducing suicide.
Macronutrients chemicals found in large quantities in our food that we need to live and grow
Micronutrients needed by the body in much smaller amounts than macronutrients
Functional Training Any exercise that has a direct relationship to the activities of daily life
Form Over Speed and Intensity (FOSI) ensures motor skills are developed before speed and intensity, ensures safety
High Intensity Exercise Endurance (HIEE) the application of maximal physical effort systematically applied to a technically developed motor skill
Functional Endurance Intensity (FEI) functional workouts with high intensity exercises
Airmanship refers to all Airmen, skilled practitioners and combatants of air, space, and cyberspace warfare
The Oath of Enlistment instills a sense of meaning and purpose within each member of the Armed Forces.
The Profession of Arms means to ensure national security, protect America’s citizens, preserve the American way of life, safeguard America’s future and place our country’s and services needs above our own.
Progressive Professionalism (P2) levels of professionalism
Direction, Discipline, and Recognition (DDR) is the foundation of P2 and is critical to our progression and self-development as professionals.
The Air Force Core Values our inner voice of self-control and the basis for the trust imperative in today’s military.
Warrior Ethos a tenacious mentality ignited by a hardiness of spirit, courage and resiliency
Hardiness of Spirit the stout internal force that can be used to get through challenging times mentally or physically
Courage the mental or moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty
Moral Courage the power and determination to follow what one believes to be right, regardless of cost to one’s self
Physical Courage is the observable actions one takes when faced with fear, pain, uncertainty, or danger
Resiliency one’s ability to withstand, recover and grow in the face of stressors and changing demands
Drug any controlled substance, or any intoxicating substance, other than alcohol, that is inhaled, injected, consumed, or introduced into the body in any manner to alter mood or function.
Substance abuse the use of any illicit drug, the misuse of any prescribed medication, or the abuse of alcohol.
Prevention one way leaders can ensure Airmen adhere to set standards
Ways leaders can prevent substance abuse issues Environment, Setting the Example, Documentation and Actions
Methods to ID Substance Abusers Self ID, Commander referrals, Medical ID, Substance Related Incident and Drug Testing
Consequences of Stress Physiological Symptoms, Psychological Symptoms, and Behavioral Symptoms
Stress Management Strategies Individual approaches, organizational approaches and wellness programs
Strength Based Leadership Philosophy recognizes talents and strengths
Four Domains of Leadership Strengths Executing, Relationship Building, Strategic Thinking, and Influencing
Followers Four Basic Needs Trust, Compassion, Stability, Hope
Blind Spots An aspect of our personality that is not known to self but is apparent to others
Johari’s Window A matrix of 4 quadrants used to determine how you typically operate as levels of self -awareness and other’s awareness of you change
Resource Stewardship the careful and responsible management of resources under one’s control
Budget Process a perpetual cycle of planning, programming, revising, adjusting, and spending that lasts one FY from 1 Oct to 30 Sep and is divided into quarters
Financial Execution Plan must be developed and approved prior to 30 Sep in order to be ready to implement on 1 Oct for the new fiscal year
1st Quarter Funds allocated, Cost Centers begin working 1st BER, 25% of budget spent/obligated.
2nd Quarter RA Submits 1st BER in Jan, Cost Centers submit inputs for next FY’s FEP, 50% of budget spent/obligated
3rd Quarter Cost Centers submit updated/revised BER and 2nd BER occurs in May, 75% of budget spent/obligated
4th Quarter EOY FY closeout begins and runs until midnight, 30 Sep, 15 Sep Congress approves next FY budget, FY ends, 100% of budget spent
Antideficiency Act a law where Congress exercises its constitutional control over the public purse
Four manpower competencies organization structure, program allocation and control, requirements determination and performance management
Be the N.C.O Nurture, champion and ownership
Strategic Communication to understand and engage key audiences in order to advance the US Government interests, policies, and objectives
Purpose of Strategic Communication to influence particular audiences
Cross Cultural Awareness can reduce battlefield friction, the fog of war and improve the military’s ability to accomplish its mission by providing insight into the intent of the groups in the battlespace, thus allowing military leaders to outthink and out maneuver them
Culture a shared set of traditions, belief systems and behaviors
Cultural Diversity is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole
Values reflect how people see relationships, the world, and themselves and can vary significantly across cultures
High Context refers to societies or groups where people have close connections over a long period of time
Low Context refers to societies where people tend to have many connections but of shorter duration or for some specific reason
Cross Cultural Competency (3C) the ability to comprehend quickly and then act appropriately to attain desired results in culturally diverse environments, even though you may not necessarily have prior exposure to the particular society and its unique culture
AF 3C Model how you influence your environment through active learning approaches (education, training and experience)
12 Domains of Culture broad categories under which humans commonly organize cultural knowledge, belief and behavior
12 Domains of Culture Family & Kinship, Religion & Spirituality, Sex & Gender, Political & Social Relations, Economics & Resources, Time & Space, Language & Communications, Technology & Material, History & Myth, Sustenance & Health, Aesthetics & Recreation,Learning & Knowledge
Follower one in the service of another, one that follows the opinions or teachings of another, one that imitates another
5 Qualities of Effective Followership Self-Management, Committed, Competent, Integrity, and Initiative
Feedback to offer or suggest information or ideas as a reaction from an inquiry
Advice an opinion or recommendation offered as a guide to action or conduct
Diagnose, Adapt and Communicate (DAC) used to ensure mission accomplishment and to develop and inspire others within the unit
Power the ability or potential to influence decisions and control resources
4 Types of Position Power Coercive, Connection, Reward and Legitimate
Coercive Power Deals with a leader’s perceived ability to provide sanctions, punishment, or consequences for not performing
Connection Power Comes from the perception of the leader’s association with people of influence inside or outside of the organization
Reward Power Deals with leaders who are able to provide things that people like
Legitimate Power Comes from a leader’s title, role, or position within the organization itself
Personal Power the extent to which followers respect, feel good about, are committed to their leader, and see their own goals being satisfied by the goals of their leader
3 Types of Personal Power Referent, Information and Expert
Referent Power Based largely on a leader’s personal traits. Likeable and charismatic.
Information Power Based on a leader’s access to data and information that is important to others
Expert Power Leaders gain power and the ability to influence through their education, experience, and job knowledge
5 Contemporary Motivational theories ABC’s of Behavior, X & Y Theory, Hierarchy of Needs, Expectation Theory, and Motivational Profile Theory
Membership level Gives time to organization out of dependency. For themselves.
Performance level More involved in organization as long as they are recognized. Complain about problems in the organization and may or may not offer solutions.
Involvement level Performing for their own reasons. Motivation comes from within. Produce good quality work because they enjoy what they do.
Types of Rewards System Level, Supervisory or Personal
Ethical Leadership combines ethical decision-making and ethical behavior to make ethical decisions and behave in ethical ways
Values core beliefs we hold regarding what is right and fair in terms of our actions and our interactions with others
Morals values that we attribute to a system of beliefs that help us define right from wrong, good vs bad
Ethics a set of standards of conduct that guide decisions and actions based on duties derived from core values
Military Ethics deal specifically with those values and expected rules of the profession that are appropriate to actions taken within the military environment
Ethical Relativism the belief that nothing is objectively right or wrong and that the definition of right or wrong depends on the prevailing view of a particular individual, culture, or historical period
Categorical Imperative an absolute, unconditional requirement that is both required and justified as an end in itself
Ethical Dilemma a situation where one is forced to choose between two alternatives
USAF Ethical Codes make it possible for NCO’s to make proper ethical decisions and behave in an ethical manner in any given situation. (AFI 36-2618, Airman’s Creed, PDG, Code of Conduct, etc…)
3 O’s Owing, ordering, and oughting (know who and what we owe, display proper ordering and understand what Airmen should do or ought to do)
3 P’s Principle, purpose, and people (telling the truth first, completing the mission and people last)
3 R’s Rules, results, and realities (Gives ethical guidance, dealing with the consequences and recognizing the importance of the situation)
3 D’s Discern, declare, and do (discern the truth, declare the truth and do what we discerned and declared)
Ethical Traps confuse or make you uncertain as to what action or behavior should be taken (Ethical relativism, loyalty syndrome, worry over image and drive for success)
Ethical Relativism making decisions based on personal values/beliefs rather than on military rules, regulations, and codes of conduct
Loyalty Syndrome making decisions based on respect and/or loyalty to an individual, unit, or organization etc. rather than on military rules, regulations and codes of conduct
Worry over Image making decisions based on how the decision will impact one’s reputation/standing among peers, subordinates, supervisors, community etc. rather than on military rules, regulations and codes of conduct
Drive for Success making decisions based on a “win at all cost” attitude rather than on military rules, regulations, and codes of conduct
Dr. Toner’s 6 Tests The Shame Test, The Community Test, The Legal Test, The Situation Test, The Consequences Test, and The God Test
Prudence First, Justice Second principle doing things just because you can rather than considering the circumstances or what’s right
National forces Security Act of 1947 created the National Security Council (NSC)
JCS consists of CJCS, VCJCS, and the Service Chiefs of the 4 military branches
CJCS the principal military advisor to the President, the NSC, and the SecDef
Operational Chain of Command used to employ forces and runs from the President, through the SecDef, to the combatant commanders
Administrative Chain of Command Used to recruit, organize, train, and equip forces and runs from the President through the SecDef to the Secretaries of the Military Departments
Combatant Command a command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander and composed of significant assigned components of two or more Military Departments
Joint Task Force Established when the mission has a specific limited objective. Geographical or functional.
Joint Force Commander A general term applied to a CCDR, subunified commander, or JTF commander authorized to exercise combatant command (command authority) or operational control over a joint force
Service Component Commands Assigned to a CCDR, consists of a Service component CDR and the Service forces that have been assigned to that CCDR
Functional Component Commands CCDR’s and CDR’s of subordinate unified commands and JFC’s have the authority to establish functional component commands to control military operations
Combat Support Agencies Agencies that provide combat support to joint forces. Provide CCDR’s specialized support and operate in a supporting role
Geographic Combatant Commands Assigned a geographic AOR within which their missions are accomplished with assigned and/or attached forces
USAFRICOM Responsible for US military relations in 53 African countries
USCENTCOM Promotes cooperation among nations, responds to crises, and deters or defeats state and non-state aggression, and supports development and, when necessary, reconstruction
USEUCOM Covers almost 1/5th of the planet and is responsible for US military relations with NATO and 51 countries on 2 continents
USNORTHCOM Conducts homeland defense, civil support, and security cooperation to defend and secure the US and its interests
USPACOM Encompasses about ½ the earth’s surface and protects and defends the territories of the US, its people, and its interests
USSOUTHCOM Responsible for providing contingency planning, operations, and security cooperation for Central and South America, the Caribbean, Cuba
Functional Combatant Commands Support GCC’s or may conduct assigned missions independently
USJFCOM Responsible for providing mission-ready joint-capable forces and supporting the development and integration of joint, interagency, and multinational capabilities to meet the present and future operational needs of the joint force
USSOCOM Oversees Special Ops Commands of the Army, AF, Navy & Marines.Conducts covert & clandestine msns like unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, special recon, psychological ops, civil affairs, direct action, counter-terrorism & war on drugs ops
USTRANSCOM The single manager of America’s global defense transportation system and is tasked with the coordination of people and transportation assets to allow the US to project and sustain forces, whenever, wherever, and for as long as they are needed
USSTRATCOM Charged with space operations, information operations, missile defense, global command and control, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, global strike and strategic deterrence, and combating WMD’s
ACC HQ at Langley AFB. Orgs, trains, equips & deploys combat ready forces to spt combatant commanders, operates fighter, attack, bomber, intel, surveillance and recon, conducts info ops/provides C2 Comm and intel sys to theater commanders and combat forces
AETC HQ at Randolph AFB. Develops America’s Airmen today, for tomorrow. Recruits Airmen,provides BMT,technical,flying training,medical, space/missile & cyber training, and PME and degree granting professional education and training
AFGSC HQ at Barksdale AFB. Develops & provides combat-ready forces for nuclear deterrence and global strike ops—safe, secure, effective—to support the POTUS and combatant commanders, organizes and trains the Air Force’s intercontinental ballistic missile wings
AFMC HQ at Wright-Patterson AFB. Delivers war-winning technology, acquisition support, sustainment and expeditionary capabilities to the warfighter
AFRC HQ at Robins AFB. Provides AF with 20% of its capability with only about 4% of the total AF budget, spanning a wide variety of missions, aerial spray missions, flies hurricane hunter missions for the NWS and is responsible for the IMA program
AFSPC HQ at Peterson AFB. Responsible for organizing, training, and equipping mission-ready space and cyberspace forces and capabilities for North American Aerospace Defense Command, USSTRATCOM, and other combatant commanders worldwide
AMC HQ at Scott AFB. Provides airlift and aerial refueling for all of America’s armed forces. They also provide Aeromedical Evacuation and Global Reach Laydown (GRL)
PACAF HQ at JB Pearl Harbor-Hickam. Provides PACAF capabilities to defend the homeland, promote stability,humanitarian relief to decisive combat employment, conducts multinational exercises and host international exchange events to foster partnerships for regio
USAFE HQ at Ramstein AB. Executes the US European Command mission with forward-based air power to provide forces for global operations, ensure strategic access, assure allies, deter aggression and build partnerships
AFSOC HQ at Hulbert Field. Responsible to USSOCOM for the readiness of AF special operations forces to conduct the war on terrorism and to disrupt, defeat and destroy terrorist networks that threaten the US, its citizens and interests worldwide
Army Core Values Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, Personal Courage
Navy/Marines Core Values Honor, Courage, and Commitment
Coast Guard Core Values Honor, Respect, Devotion to Duty
Feedback the active communication process where you evaluate or judge subordinate performance and respond by either promoting a change in behavior or by reinforcing present performance
Counseling a type of communication used to empower subordinates to achieve goals
Personal Situation Counseling event-oriented, reactive in nature, and occurs during or after a situation
Performance/Professional Growth Counseling is proactive in nature, it occurs in preparation for, or anticipation of, future events
Counseling Guidelines Outline, Environment, Length of Sessions, Inform Counselees, Plan of Action
Counseling Approaches Directive, Nondirective, Combined
Directive Supervisor does most of the talking, makes decisions, determines the content, and assumes responsibility of the session
Nondirective This puts the responsibility on the subordinate. The supervisor is there to provide information the subordinate may need.
Combined The most common approach. It creates trust and emphasizes that subordinates must be responsible for planning and decision making.
Subordinate-Centered Communication Active listening, responding, questioning, silence
Active Listening Give full attention. Don’t just listen, try to understand the message
Responding Use appropriate eye contact and gestures
Questioning Question to obtain valuable information
Silence Silence for a short period is an effective way to get people to open up
Interpersonal Communication a face-to-face, multidirectional exchange of verbal messages and nonverbal signals between two or more people, for the purpose of gaining a shared meaning
Adaptability the ability to adjust self to changed, unexpected or ambiguous situations by actively seeking information and by demonstrating openness and support of different and innovative change ideas
Cognitive Flexibility the ability to use different thinking strategies and mental frameworks
Emotional Flexibility the ability to vary your approach to dealing with your own emotions and those of others
Dispositional Flexibility the ability to remain optimistic and at the same time realistic
Change Management a proactively coordinated and structured period of transition using a systematic approach that addresses planning for the change, implementing, monitoring, and controlling the change effort, and effecting the stakeholders
Roles in the Change Process Change sponsors, change agents, change targets
Change Sponsors Initiate change because they have the power to determine why, when, and how changes occur
Change Agents Responsible for implementing change initiated by the change sponsor
Change Targets The key players and stakeholders who actually undergo the change
Janssen’s Model of Change Comfort, Denial, Confusion, Renewal
Comfort (Stage 1) Things are routine
Denial (Stage 2) Rather not deal with the new and just stay with the old
Confusion (Stage 3) Accept the change and begin to grapple for ways to proceed from the known to the unknown
Renewal (Stage 4) Accept the change
Levels of Change Knowledge, Attitude, Individual Behavior, Group Behavior
Knowledge Generally the easiest change to bring about
Attitude More difficult to change because they are emotionally charged (+ or -)
Individual Behavior Significantly more difficult and time-consuming than the previous levels. Habits often stand in the way of this type of change
Group Behavior The most difficult to change
Innovators They immediately embrace new ideas. Big picture thinkers
Early Adopters Usually social and opinion leaders who are often popular, educated, and able to see a competitive advantage in adopting new ideas early
Early Majority Provides an important link in the change process because they tend to represent mainstream thinking
Late Majority In the middle of the curve that are hampered by feelings of insecurity and skepticism, which prevents them from taking risks
Laggards The last people to embrace new ideas and they influence no one
Directive Change Cycle Imposed by some external force and used with Position Power. Begins with change imposed upon the group or organization (Group, Individual Behavior, Attitudes, Knowledge)
Participative Change Cycle Used with Personal Power and implemented when new knowledge is made available to the individual or group. Success is dependent upon the group’s positive attitude and commitment in the direction of the desired change (Knowledge, Attitude, Individual Behav
The Change Process Unfreezing, changing, refreezing
Unfreezing (Phase 1) Recognize the need for change (most neglected)
Changing (Phase 2) The actual modification of technology, tasks, structure, or people (implement change)
Refreezing (Phase 3) Lock in the change and establish stability (put down roots)
Conflict The process that results when one person or group perceives another person or group is frustrating, or about to frustrate, an important concern
Destructive conflict creates barriers to cooperation, communication, and impacts morale, diverting efforts from important tasks and issues
Constructive conflict leads to solutions, resolutions, and higher levels of understanding and communication between individuals or groups.
Sources of Conflict Communication, interests, structural, personal behavior, worldview
Communication Failure to communicate or lack of communication
Interests Perceived competition over resources, win-lose assumptions, and usually involve money, physical resources, time, procedural issues, or psychological issues.
Structural Size, Participation, Line-Staff Distinctions, Rewards, Resource Interdependence
Personal Behavior Values, Perceptions, and Personalities
Worldview Conformity, Achievement, Tradition, Power, Universalism, Self-direction, Security
High Context Culture refers to societal groups or cultures whose close connections with one another have existed for a long time
Low Context Culture refers to groups and cultures where connections between members have not existed as long as those of the high context group or culture
3 Things to Consider for Conflict Management Who you’re dealing with, what the stakes are, how critical is the situation
Cooperation Refers to how willing a person or group is to satisfy the other person’s or group’s needs
Assertiveness Refers to how strongly a person seeks to satisfy his or her own needs
Competing/Forcing Overwhelm an opponent with formal authority, threats, or the use of power (I win, you lose)
Collaborating Involves an attempt to satisfy the concerns of both sides through honest discussion (I win, you win and takes a long time)
Compromising Intermediate amounts of assertiveness and cooperation and strives for partial satisfaction of both parties’ desires by seeking a middle ground (Both win/lose)
Accommodating Combines low assertiveness and high cooperation—the opposite of competing (I lose, you win)
Avoiding Combination of low assertiveness and low cooperation leads to an avoiding style (Put off, do it later)
Distributive Negotiating Assumes resources are limited, single-issue negotiations and considered zero sums. Attempting to divide, divvy, or distribute, something. Value claiming uses hardball tactics
Integrative Negotiating Sees the possibility for mutually beneficial, value creating cooperation between the parties involved. Both parties are partners in the negotiation. Value creating
Active Listening When you make a conscious effort to hear not only the words that another person is saying but, more importantly, to try and understand the total message being sent.
Active Listening Techniques Include Minimal Encouragements, Paraphrasing, Emotion Labeling, Mirroring, Open-Ended Questions, I messages, and Effective Pauses.
Cooperative Negotiation Strategy Concentrates on the problem, the process, and the relationships and falls in the integrative negotiation strategy. (Not a win, lose situation)
Step 1: Positions Establish you position and estimate your counterpart’s position
Step 2: Interests Prioritize your most important interest and your counterpart’s most important interest (what you want out of it)
Step 3: BATNA Last step in planning phase that involves determining what you’re willing to give up
Step 4: Brainstorming Using divergent thinking skills to develop ideas that will satisfy the interests you have developed (Getting the best deal possible)
Step 5: Solution End result. Select the best idea
A Group a gathering of persons (or objects) located together
A Team a group organized to work together
AFDD1-1 states that “The primary task of a military organization is to perform its mission
Creators focus on the possibilities, generate new ideas and fresh concepts, and looking outside the box
Advancers focus on the interaction, communicate new ideas, and carry them forward
Refiners focus on the analysis, challenge all concepts, and analyze to detect flaws and potential problems
Executors focus on the realization, follow up on objectives, and implement ideas and solutions
Flexers can focus on everything. They are a combination of the 4 roles and adapt styles to fit needs.
P.E.P. Cycle the cycle that people go through when generating new ideas. Panic is when they think they will never have a good idea. Then, they move to Elation and think they have a great idea. And lastly, without encouragement or reassurance they move back to panic
The “Z” Process Where ideas go back-n-forth between the Creator-Advancer-Refiner before finally reaching the Executor
Team Dynamics An ongoing process involving interaction of individuals within a team to move toward or away from achieving the desired objective
The 5 C’s of a Team Community, Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Coaching
The 5 Common Pitfalls of a Team Absence of Trust, Fear of Conflict, Lack of Commitment, Avoidance of Accountability, and Inattention to Results
Stages of Team Development Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning & Transforming
Forming Stage Transitions people from member to group status and the group tests the boundaries of acceptable behavior
Storming Stage The most difficult stage for a team. The members acknowledge the intent of the team and the eventual goal. Team members begin to argue and debate the next move of the team.
Norming Stage When members reconcile disputes and agree to disagree. They abandon negative and unproductive energy. Emotional conflict is squelched.
Performing Stage When members have heightened morale and loyalty to the team and its success. Members work together to diagnose problems and the team is willing to share ideas freely.
Adjourning and Transforming Stage When the current objective has been met and the team either disperses or begins to work on another task.
Human Relations The relations between two or more people
Equal Opportunity and Treatment (EOT) Policy-Military States that the AF will conduct its affairs free from unlawful discrimination, according to US laws, and to provide equal opportunity and treatment for all military members irrespective of their color, national origin, race religion, or sex.
Equal Employment Opportunity(EEO) Policy-Civilian States that personnel management will be accomplished in a manner that is free from discrimination and provides equal opportunity for all applicants and employees regardless of their race, color, religion, age, sex, national origin, or handicapping condit
The AF Affirmative Employment Program (AEP) Designed to facilitate opportunities for the employment and advancement of underrepresented groups in the work force, remove artificial barriers in personnel systems and practices, and eliminate discrimination by act or inference.
Unlawful Discrimination Includes discrimination based on color, national origin, race, religion, or sex that is not otherwise authorized by law or regulation.
Personal Discrimination Individual actions taken to deprive a person or group of a right because of color, national origin, race, religion, or sex. Such discrimination can occur overtly, covertly, intentionally, or unintentionally.
Systemic Discrimination The action by an institution (or system) that, through its policies or procedures, deprives a person or group of a right because of color, national origin, race, religion, or sex. Such discrimination can occur overtly, covertly, intentionally, or unintent
Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination that involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature
Complaint An allegation of unlawful discrimination based on race, color, national origin, religion, or sex.
Equal Opportunity The right of all persons to participate in, and benefit from, programs and activities for which they are qualified. These programs and activities shall be free from social, personal, or institutional barriers that prevent people from rising to the highest
Human Relations Climate The prevailing perceptions of individuals concerning interpersonal relationships within their working, living, and social environment.
Prejudice A judgment against or an opinion contrary to anything without just grounds or sufficient knowledge.
Stereotype Exaggerated belief about a category of people. It rationalizes our conduct toward that category.
Racism Any attitude or action of a person or institutional structure that subordinates a person or group because of race.
Sexism Attitudes and beliefs that one sex is superior to another.
Sexual Assault Intentional sexual contact, characterized by use of force, threats, intimidation, abuse of authority, or when the victim does not or cannot consent. It impacts the Individual, Unit, and AF.
Perpetrator The criminal who assaults the victim.
Facilitator A person who enable, encourages, or creates a situation or environment that allows a perpetrator to act.
Bystander A person who sees the potential for a sexual assault.
Victim The person assaulted by the perpetrator.
Restricted Reporting Confidential, for AD military only, no law enforcement investigation, no Command involvement but has a medical exam, medical services, counseling services, and Victim advocate services.
Unrestricted Reporting Not confidential, for everyone, there is a law enforcement investigation, there is Command involvement, there is a medical exam, medical services, counseling services, and Victim advocate services.
SARC The first point of contact for reporting a sexual assault and is considered the center of gravity when it comes to issues of sexual assault.
Victim Advocates Individuals who are specially trained to support victims of sexual assault.
Victim Witness Assistance Program (VWAP) Liaisons are individuals who assist a victim during the military justice process.
Military Theory The scientific, artistic, and philosophical idea or view relating to principles, methods, rules, and operations of war.
Unity of Command Emphasizes that all efforts should be directed and coordinated toward a common objective under one responsible commander.
Objective Pertains to directing military operations toward a defined and attainable goal that contributes to strategic, operational and tactical aims.
Offensive To seize, retain, and exploit the initiative
Mass Concentrates the effects of combat power at a time and place that is most advantageous to achieve decisive results.
Maneuver Forces the enemy to react, allows successful friendly operations, and reduces friendly vulnerabilities.
Economy of Force The carful employment and distribution of forces.
Security To never permit the enemy to acquire unexpected advantage.
Surprise Leverages the security principle by attacking the enemy at a time, place, or in a manner for which they are not prepared.
Simplicity Calls for avoiding unnecessary complexity in organizing, preparing, planning, and conducting military operations.
Basic Doctrine Foundation of all other doctrines and sets the tone and vision for future doctrine development. It provides a broad, fundamental, an continual guidance on how US forces are organized, trained, equipped, sustained, and employed. Changes less rapidly than
Operational Doctrine Describes a more detailed organization of forces and applies the principles of basic doctrine to military actions.
Tactical Doctrine Describes the proper employment of specific AF assets, individually or in concert with other assets, to accomplish detailed objectives. It is codified as tactics, techniques, and procedures in AFTTP 3- Series manuals. Changes the quickest out of the 3 d
National Security Strategy The policy of the US to seek and support democratic movements and institutions in every nation and culture, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world. To achieve this we must apply strategic approach in 4 national interests: Security, Prospe
National Defense Strategy Protects the American people through 5 key objectives: Defend the Homeland, Win the Long War, Promote Security, Deter Conflict, and Win our Nation’s Wars.
National Military Strategy Derives objectives, missions, and capability requirements from an analysis of the NSS, the NDS, and the security environment. NMS establishes 3 military objectives: Protect the US against External Attacks and Aggression, Prevent Conflict and Surprise Att
Crisis An incident or situation involving a threat to a nation, its territories, citizens, military forces, possessions, or vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a condition of diplomatic, economic, political, or military importance that commitment o
Contingency An anticipated situation that likely would involve military forces in response to natural and man-made disasters, terrorists, subversives, military operations by foreign powers, or other situations as directed by the President or SecDef.
Joint Campaign A series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space in which elements of two or more military departments participate.
Traditional Warfare A confrontation between nation-states or coalitions/alliances of nation-states.
Irregular Warfare A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations.
Tactical actions Battles, engagements, and or strikes conducted by combat forces of a single or a JIIM, coordinated in time and place, to achieve strategic or operational objectives in an operational area. Tactics are at once both a science and an art.
Workplace Violence Any act of violence, against persons or property, threats, intimidation, harassment, or other inappropriate, disruptive behavior that cause fear for personal safety and/or involve a substantial risk of physical or emotional harm to individuals, or damage
Assault A violent physical or verbal attack, an unlawful threat, or an attempt to do violence or harm.
Aggravated Assault Causing serious physical injury to another.
Inaction Not taking action against workplace violence when warning signs are evident.
Zero tolerance policy States that severe disciplinary action will be taken against individuals engaged in workplace violence or threats of workplace violence.
Workplace bullying The repeated, unreasonable, and unwanted actions against individuals or groups with the intent to harass, intimidate, or degrade. Abuse or misuse of power considered psychological violence.
Proactive Steps to Prevent Violence in the Workplace Physical Security Measures, Pre-assignment Screening, Training, Evaluation
AFSO21 Focuses on generating efficiencies and improving combat capabilities across the AF and applies to all processes associated with the AF mission.
AFSO21 5 Desired Effects Increase productivity of our people, Increase critical equipment availability rates, Improve response time and agility, Sustain safe and reliable operations, Improve energy efficiency
AFSO21 3 Levels of Priority Just do it, Rapid Improvement Events, High Value Initiative
Just Do It Quick fix or simple answer to an obstacle in a process. Done by 1 person
Rapid Improvement Events (RIE) Last about a week and apply a series of problem solving steps.
High Value Initiative (HVI) Produce significant returns and require 4-6 months to successfully define and implement the required process changes.
Decision making The cognitive process that results in the selection of a course of action from among several alternative scenarios.
System 1 (Reactive Thinking) Relies heavily on situational cues, prominent memories, trial and error, and heuristic thinking (discovering solutions for self) to arrive quickly and confidently at judgments. Usually familiar situations that require immediate action.
System 2 (Reflective Thinking) Broad and informed problem solving and deliberate decision-making. Usually unfamiliar situations when there is time for more planning and comprehensive consideration. (Done before System 1)
Decision Making Process Situation appraisal, problem analysis, decision analysis, potential problem analysis
Situation Appraisal Used to separate, clarify, and prioritize concerns. When confusion is mounting, the correct approach is unclear, or priorities overwhelm plans, Situation Appraisal is the tool of choice.
Problem Analysis To find the cause of a positive or negative deviation, we would conduct a problem analysis. Through this analysis, we may find people, machinery, systems, or processes that are not performing as expected. Problem Analysis points to the relevant informatio
Decision Analysis A systematic procedure based on the thinking pattern that we all use when making choices. When the path ahead is uncertain, when there are too many choices, or the risk of making the wrong choice is high, Decision Analysis clarifies the purpose and balanc
Potential Problem Analysis To protect actions or plans, we would use a potential problem analysis. When a project simply must go well, risk is high, or myriad things could go wrong, Potential Problem Analysis reveals the driving factors and identifies ways to lower risk.
OODA Loop Individual approach to problem solving (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act)
Observe Determine there is a problem and why there is a problem
Orient Set goals and determine the root cause of the problem
Decide Decide the appropriate course of action
Act Implement new processes and monitor/analyze progress and effectiveness of solutions
Nuclear Deterrence The product of three inter-related factors which are a nation’s capability, multiplied by its will, multiplied by other’s perceptions of that capability and will. Capability x Will x Perception = Deterrence
Nuclear Weapon State (NWS) A nation which has manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to 1 Jan 1967
Proliferation Includes activities by non-members of the NPT to secure, transport, and employs WMD
Non-proliferation Includes actions by members of the NPT to detect, secure, and dispose of these weapons
Non-Nuclear Weapon State (NNWS) A nation that hadn’t produced a nuclear weapon before 1 Jan 1967
Nuclear Surety Applies to all nuclear-related materials, personnel, and procedures to ensure no nuclear accidents, incidents, loss, theft, or unauthorized or accidental employments occur. Three key elements of nuclear surety are safety, security, and reliability.
Safety The application of engineering and management principles, criteria, and techniques to protect nuclear weapons against the risks and threats inherent in their environments within the constraints of operational effectiveness, time, and cost throughout all p
Security The total spectrum of procedures, facilities, equipment, and personnel employed to provide the protection against loss of custody, theft, or diversion of a nuclear weapon system, the protection against unauthorized access, and the protection against unaut
Nuclear Weapons System Reliability Maintained through an exhaustive testing, inspection, and maintenance program to guarantee the weapons will work if ever called upon.
Individual Reliability PRP and Two-person concept
PRP Ensures that only those persons whose behavior demonstrates integrity, reliability, trustworthiness, allegiance, and loyalty to the US shall be allowed to perform duties associated with nuclear weapons.
Two-Person Concept Requires the presence at all times of at least two persons, each certified PRP, knowledgeable and capable to perform the task at hand.
Nuclear Enterprise Consists of people, processes, procedures, and systems to conduct, execute, and support nuclear weapon systems and operations. (Total Capabilities)
Nuclear Weapons Related Material (NWRM) Select nuclear combat delivery system components and use control equipment that are designed sensitive, or needed to maintain and protect system integrity.
Weapons Storage Areas (WSAs) Heavily secured areas, inside the perimeter of a base, where nuclear weapons are stored and maintained in weapon (igloo) bunkers.
Prime Nuclear Airlift Force (PNAF) Any aircrew, aircraft, flightline, or other function that provides peacetime support of logistical airlift for nuclear weapons.
Weapons Storage Security System (WS3) A system including electronic controls and vaults built into the floors of Protective Aircraft Shelters (PAS)
Nuclear Employment Requires explicit orders from the President of the United States
New triad Has much more, consisting of strategic offensive and defensive capabilities that include nuclear and non-nuclear strike capabilities, active and passive defenses, and a robust research, development, and industrial infrastructure to develop, build, and mai
Nuclear Calamity The misshipment of sensitive missile components or the unauthorized movement of nuclear weapons
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