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Systemic Anatomy

Nervous System

How does the body respond to a stimulus? 1. Contract a muscle 2. Glands secrete 3. Initiate cellular reactions 4. Initiate a thought process
How does the body respond to a stimulus? 1. Contract a muscle 2. Glands secrete 3. Initiate a cellular reaction 4. Initiate a thought process
What does the CNS consist of? 1. Brain 2. Spinal Cord 3. Neuroglial Cells
What does the PNS consist of? 1. Cranial Nerves 2. Spinal Nerves 3. Neuroglia Cells
How many pairs of Cranial Nerves are there in the CNS? 12 Pairs
How many pairs of Spinal Nerves are there? 31 Pairs
What are the functional divisions of the Nervous System? 1. Somatic NS 2. Autonomic NS
What are the divisions of the ANS? 1. Parasympathetic 2. Sympathetic
In which division of the NS consists of one neuron chain from the CNS to the neuroeffector organ? the Somatic Nervous System
Which division of the NS cosists of a 2 neuron chain from the CNS to the neuroeffector organ? Autonomic Nervous System
What are the functions of the nervous system? 1. Perceive and respond to stimuli 2. Coordination & Body Control 3. Memory 4. Deductive Reasoning 5. Inductive reasoning 6. Instinctive Behavior
Is a motor neuron efferent or afferent? Efferent
Is a Sensory neuron efferent of afferent? Afferent
What is a collection of neuron cell bodies outside the CNS? Ganglion
What is a collection of neuron cell bodies within the CNS? Nucleus
What is a grouping of nerve fibers that interconnect regions of the CNS? Tract
What is a whitish cord like structure composed of one or more bundles of myelinated nerve fibers and connective tissue that transmits impulses to and from the CNS and the body? Nerve
What is a network or entanglement of nerves? Plexus
What are the basic structures of a neuron? 1. Cell Body or Soma - contains the nuclues, processing center 2. Dendrite - receiving portion (afferent) contains receptors 3. Axon - transmitting portion (efferent)
What portion of the axon is proximal to the body? Distal End? 1. Axon Hillock 2. Axon Terminus
What myelinates nerves of the PNS? Neurolemmocytes or Schwann Cells
What are the neuroglia of the PNS? 1. Schwann Cells or Neurolemmocytes 2. Satelite Cells or Ganglionic Gliocytes
What lines the ventricles of the brain? Ependymal Cells
What myelinates the nerves of the CNS? Oligodendrocytes
What contributes to the formation of the Blood Brain Barrier? Astrocytes and Tight Junctions
What are referred to as Getter Cells Microglia Cells (Phagocytic)
An increase in myelination will decrease the speed of conduction across a nerve, True or False? False, Increase myelin Increase Speed
What is a lipoproteinaceous material composed of regularly alternating membranes of lipid lamellae and protein? Myelin
What gives the white matter of the brain and spinal cord and peripheral nerves their whitish color? Myelin
What is another name for the Nodes of Ranveir? Neurofibril Node
The larger the diameter of the nerve the slower the speed of transmission, True or False? False, Larger fiber Increased speed of transmission
What are the 3 classifications of neurons according to diameter of the axon? Type A B C
Which type of neuron is the largest? Type A - rapid conducting (Pain)
Which is the smallest type of neuron? Type C - (Visceral Sensory)
Which neneuron type is associated with Sympathetic / Parasympathetic fibers? Type B
What are the 3 classifications according to structure? 1. Pseudouniploar 2. Bipolar 3. Multipolar
Which classification of structure is special sensory? Bipolar
Which classification of structure is motor? Multipolar
Which classification of structure is sensory? Pseudounipolar
GSA and GVA are what types of neurons? Pseudounipolar
SSA and SVA are what type of neurons? Bipolar
GSE and GVE are what type of neurons? Multipolar
Are GVA and SVA voluntary or involuntary? Involuntary - the V stands for Visceral implying autonomic innervation
What special senses are involved in SVA? Smell and Taste
What refers to movement or sensations from the whole body? General Somatic
What refers to organs of the body, smooth muscles, cardiac muscle and glands? General Visceral
What refers to sight, hearing and equilibrium? Special Somatic
What refers to smell, taste, and special skeletal muscles (traps and SCM)? Special Visceral
What is another name for SVE? Branchial Efferent
Does the spinal nerves contain SVE? No just the 4 G's (GSE, GSA, GVE, GVA) No Special components
What are the 4 ways to classify neurons: 1. According to direction of impulse (afferent vs. efferent) 2. Fiber Daimeter (Type A,B,C) 3. Structure (pseudounipolar, bipolar, multipolar) 4. according to tissue innervated (GSE, GSA, GVA, GVE, SSA, SVA, SVE)
Name the 3 connective tissue coverings of a nerve? 1. Endoneurium - surrounds individual nerve fiber 2. Perineurium - surrounds bundles of nerve fibers 3. epineurium - surrounds entire nerve
What ions travel along the nerve fiber to create a stimulus? Sodium and Potassium
What is the transmission of an impulse along an axon or dendrite referred to? Conductivity
Does a nerve impulse travel in one or two directions? One
Polarization exists when there is an ______ ______ present bertween the _______ of the cell and the _______ of the cell. 1. Electrochemical Gradient 2. Inside 3. Outside
Is the inside of the cell negative or positive? Inside - Negative (Potassium) Outside - Positive (Sodium)
What is the all or none response? When a stimulus of sufficient strength triggers an action potential the nerve fires and the wave of depolarization will travel the length of the neuron without a loss of voltage as it travels
What is the internal voltage at which the cell will spontaneously depolarize? Threshold
What is a functional connection between the axon of the presynaptic neuron and the cell membrane of the postsynaptic cell? Synapse
How does the chemical impulse cross the synapse? Diffusion
Where are the synaptic vesicles located? In the axon terminal
What is the gap between the pre and post synaptic cells? Synaptic Cleft
What is the most widespread neurotransmitter? Ach
What enzyme breaks down Ach? Acetylcholinesterase
Name an inhibitory ion that causes hyperpolarization? Chloride Ions cause the cell to become more negative AKA Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential (IPSP)
Name an ion that causes the cell to excitatory? Sodium Ions cause the cell to become closer to depolarization AKA Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential (EPSP)
Created by: Brad Hall



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