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Anatomy_3

Gluteal Region and Posterior Thigh

QuestionAnswer
What attaches the inferior and anterior surface of the sacrum to the ischial spine? Sacrospinous ligament
What extends from the lateral and inferior surface of the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity? Sacrotuberous ligament
Most of the gluteal muscles have their attachments to the greater trochanter, in the trochanteric fossa, or to the intertrochanteric crest. Where does the gluteus maximus attach? Gluteal tuberosity
What arises from the posterior surface of the distal half of the femur in the posterior thigh? Short head of biceps femoris
What muscles have important functions in gait? Gluteus maximus
When is gluteus maximus most active? Extension of hip from flexed position (running, climbing stairs, or rising from seated position)
Where does the guteus maximus arise? Posterior iliac crest, posterior sacrum and sacroiliac ligaments, coccyx, and sacrotuberous ligament
Where are the two insertions of the gluteus maximus? Gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial tract
Where does the iliotibial tract attach? Anterior surface of lateral condyle of tibia
What protects and cushions the deep surface of the gluteus maximus as it passes over the ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter? A bursa
What is the smaller muscle lying on the anterolateral thigh, which acts on the deep enveloping fascia of the thigh and movement of thigh? Tensor fasciae latae
What are the attachments of the tensor fasciae latae? Superiorly to anterior part of iliac crest and inferiorly to deep surface of iliotibial tract
What is the function of the tensor fasciae latae muscle? Abduct and flex the thigh - also assists in knee flexion
What muscles have a principal function of preventing tilt of the pelvis when the contralateral lower limb is not bearing weight equally (as with the contralateral limb off the ground during walking)? Gluteus medius and minimus
What are the attachments of gluteus medius? Superiorly in the fossa between anterior and posterior gluteal lines of the ala of the ilium
What are the attachments of the gluteus minimus? To ala between anterior and inferior gluteal lines
The gluteus medius and minimus attach to the ala. What is their other place of attachment? Greater trochanter - gluteus minimus attaches more anteriorly
What are the functions of gluteus medius and gluteus minimus? Because of their attachments, gluteus minimus can assist with medial rotation of the thigh and gluteus medius can assist with lateral rotation of the thigh
What is the principal function of the deep gluteal muscles? Lateral rotation of the thigh - but they also provide significant tonic contraction to maintain the head of the femur in the acetabulum
What are the attachments of the piriformis muscle? Arises as series of muscle slips that attach between anterior sacral foramina; passes through greater sciatic foramen and converges to tendon that attaches to the superior border of greater trochanter
What are the attachments of obturator internus? Proximally to lateral wall of true pelvis (including obturator membrane); fibers converge to tendon which passes inferior to the ischial spine; the tendon turns laterally to attach to superior end of trochanteric fossa
What are the attachments of obturator externus? Arises from lateral surface of obturator membrane and adjacent area of pubis and ischium on lateral os coxa; fibers converge to tendon, which passes inferior to neck of femur to insert into trochanteric fossa
What are the locations and attachments of superior and inferior gemelli muscles? Arise on or near ischial spine superior and inferior to tendon of obturator internus muscle; fibers merge with tendon of obturator internus and have similar attachments
What is the short, quadrangular muscle lying inferior to obturator interus/gemelli complex? Quadratus femoris
What are the attachments of quadratus femoris? Proximally to ischial tuberosity and distally to the intertrochanteric crest
In general, what innervates the gluteal muscles? Sacral plexus
What innervates gluteus maximus? From what spinal cord level is it derived? Inferior gluteal nerve (L5-S2)
What innervates gluteus medius and minimus and tensor fascia lata? From what spinal cord level is it derived? Superior gluteal nerve (L5-S1)
What innervates piriformis? From what spinal cord level is it derived? Small nerve fibers from (S1-S2)
What innervates superior gemellus and obturator internus? From what spinal cord level is it derived? Small nerve (L5-S1)
What innervates inferior gemellus and quadratus femoris? From what spinal cord level is it derived? A small nerve independent from the small nerve innervating superior gemellus and obturator internus (L5-S1)
What innervates obturator externus? Branch of obturator nerve
What provides cutaneous sensation to the buttock area? Dorsal rami of lumbar and sacral spinal nerves (cluneal nerves) and by branches of posterior femoral cutaneous nerves (inferior cluneal nerves)
What artery supplies the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae? Superior gluteal artery
What artery supplies the gluteus maximus? Inferior gluteal artery
The venous drainage of the gluteal region is by veins that accompany the arteries. Where do these veins drain to in the pelvic region? Internal iliac vein
Where do the lymphatics drain in the gluteal region? Drains to sites inside pelvis
What separates the posterior thigh from other muscular compartments of the thigh? Femur and fascial septa
What are the functions of the "hamstring" muscles? Hip extension (particularly during walking) and knee flexion
What are the hamstring muscles? Semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, and inferior, medial portion of adductor magnus
What are the attachments of semimembranosus? Arises from anterior portion of ischial tuberosity and attaches distally to posterior portion of medial tibial condyle
What are the attachments of semitendinosus? Arises from ischial tuberosity, immediately posterior to attachment of semimembranosus; attaches to anterior surface of medial tibial condyle
What forms the pes anserinus? Semitendinosus, gracilis, and sartorius attachments at the anterior surface of the medial tibial condyle
What envelopes semitendinosus as it passes inferiorly? Semimembranosus
Biceps femoris has two components: a long head and a short head. What is the proximal attachment of the long head? Ischial tuberosity - shares this site of attachment with semitendinosus
Biceps femoris has two components: a long head and a short head. What is the proximal attachment of the short head? Arises from lateral lip of linea aspera and lateral supracondylar line and from lateral intramuscular septum
What is the common distal attachment for biceps femoris? Head of fibula
What are the actions of the long head of biceps femoris? Hip extension and knee flexion
What are the actions of the short head of biceps femoris? Knee flexion
What is the function of the inferior, medial portion of adductor magnus muscle? Hip extension
What spinal nerves form the sciatic nerve? L4-S3
In general, what does the sciatic nerve supply? Posterior thigh, leg, and foot
The sciatic nerve leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, usually inferior to piriformis. Describe the course of the sciatic nerve from this point. Emerges into thigh deep to long head of biceps, between that muscle and medial group of hamstring muscles
The sciatic nerve consists of a medial tibial portion and a lateral fibular portion that are bound together in a common fascial bundle. What does the tibial division innervate? Semimembranosus, semitendinosus, the "hamstring" division of adductor magnus, and long head of biceps
The sciatic nerve consists of a medial tibial portion and a lateral fibular portion that are bound together in a common fascial bundle. What does the common fibular nerve innervate? Short head of biceps femoris
What provides innervation to the posterior thigh? Where is this nerve derived? Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh (S1-S3)
What artery supplies the posterior thigh? Perforating (usually 4 branches) of profunda femoris artery
Describe the venous return from the posterior thigh. Principally via veins that accompany perforating arteries to drain to deep vein of the thigh, thence to femoral vein; they are valved veins that move blood centrally during muscular contraction withinthe confined space of posterior compartment
Describe the lymphatic drainage. Lymph channels and nodes that accompany veins
Created by: Cory67