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Chap 6 Skeletal

Bones and Accessory structures that make up the joints

The skeletal system provides a framework for what? Support
What allows movement by providing attachment sites for skeletal muscle? Movement
What is it called when the skull and rib cage protects the internal organs? Protection
Hemopoiesis is what? Blood formation
Hemopoiesis is produced in the _________ bone marrow? Red
Hemopoiesis is made from ____ cells? Stem
The skeletal system provides what? Storage
_______ ___________ levels are maintained by putting calcium in or removing calcium from bones? Blood calcium
Bone tissue is made of what type of tissue? Connective tissue
Connective tissue is made up of? Cells and matrix
Osteocytes make up the? Bone cells
Calcium salts and callogen make up the? Matrix
The bone matrix is non-living but is constantly? Changing
The two types of calcium salts were? Calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate
What are the two types of bone? Compact and Spongy
Another name for compact bone is? Cortical bone
Cortical bone is made up of? Columns
The columns in cortical bone are called? Osteons or Haversian systems
Concentric rings surround a? Central/ Haversian canal
Haversian canals contain what? Blood vessels
Osteocytes are in spaces called? Lacunae
Another name for spongy bone is? Cancellous bone
Spongy bone is very what? Porous
Spongy bone is not arranged into? Haversian systems
Spongy bone often contains _________ bone marrow? Red
Red bone marrow produces what? RBC's, platelets, 5 types of WBC's (hemopoiesis)
These type of bones are longer than they are wide? Long bones
Examples of long bones are? Femur, Humerus
The middle long part of the long bone is called? Diaphysis
Another name for Diaphysis is? Shaft
The shaft is a? Hollow compact bone
The shaft contains a what? Medullary cavity
Another name for the medullary cavity is? Marrow canal
The medullary cavity contains ____________ bone marrow and mostly ____________ ______________? Yellow bone marrow and Adipose tissue
The end of the long bone is called? Epiphyses
The epiphyses is spongy bone covered with a __________ layer of ______________ bone? Thin Compact
The ___________ is found between diaphysis and epiphysis? Metaphysis
The metaphysis contains the growth plate called? Epiphyseal discs
These bones are about the same length as width? Short bones
Examples of short bones are? Carpals and tarsals
These bones are flat? Flat bones
Examples of flat bones are? Ilia, skull and ribs
These bones are in irregular shapes? Irregular bones
Examples of irregular bones are? Vertebrae, facial
Short flat and irregular bones are all made of ___________ bone covered with a think layer of __________ bone? Spongy and Compact
Hyaline cartilage that covers the opposing surfaces of synovial joints? Articular cartilage
Articular cartilage is very __________ to reduce __________? Smooth Friction
Fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers bone is called? Periosteum
Periosteum does not cover where ____________ ____________ is? Articular Cartilage
The fibers of the periosteum merge with _________ and __________ to attach them to the bone. Ligaments and tendons
Periosteum contains _____ _________ and _________? Blood vessels and nerves
Periosteum also contains __________ that become active after injury? Osteoblasts
During embryonic growth the skeleton is a template of _______ or _______ ___________ tissue? Cartillage or Fibrous Connective
The two types of bone development are? Intramembranousossification and Endochondralossification
The intramembranous ossification includes the flat bones of the __________ and the ____________ __________? Skull and Facial bones
2 membranes of fibrous connective tissues are formed in which type of bone development? Intrmembranous
In the 3rd month of development ______________ differentiate from ____________ that are present? Osteoblasts and Fiberblasts
Osteoblasts form bone matrix in a process called? Ossification
Intermembranous ossification begins at a? Ossification center in each bone
The soft spot of fibrous tissue membranes still present at birth are called? Fontanel
Fontanel allow for what? Compression of the skill during birth
Fontanel also do what? Permit growth
By what age is the fontanel ossified? 2
Endochondral ossification is where ____________ is replaced by bone from osteoblasts? Cartilage
Most of the skeleton is made during which ossification? Endochondral
_______ ossification centers are where bone forms first? Primary
_____ ossification centers are where bone forms second? Secondary
In long bones the ______ __________ is a secondary center of ossification in each opiphysis? epiphyseal disc or growth plate
Cells that break down bone by resorption are called? Osteoclasts
Bone begins as ____ marrow in the diaphysis but is replaced by ________ marrow after birth? Red and yellow
The genetic potential for height and bone mass is? Heredity
What provides building blocks? Nutrition
Vit. D is required for __________ of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestine? Absorption
Vit. A & C are important for the protein part of the ___________? Matrix
What gives bone feedback to cause it to strengthen itself? Exercise or physical stress
Decreased bone matrix causing weakness and a higher potential for fracture? Osteoporosis
What are 2 divisions of the skeleton? Axial and Appendicular
The axial skeleton form the? Axis of the body
The axis of the body includes the? Skull, spine, thoracic (rib) cage
The appendicular skeleton forms the? Appendages and girdles
The fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone is called? The ligament
A hole or opening feature in bone is called? Foramen
A depression or dent feature in bone is called? Fossa
A ridge or edge feature in bone is called? The crest
A tunnel or passage feature in bone is called? Meatus
A projection or something that sticks out feature in bone is called? Process
2 bone features that can be flat projections are called? Facet or Plate
2 bone features that can be rounded projections are called? Condyle or Tubercle
A round projection bone feature is called? Tuberosity
There are how many cranial bones? 8
There are how many facial bones? 14
There are how many auditory ossicles? 6
What bones surround the brain and protect it and the eyes and ears? Cranial bones
The Occipital Bone is a large hole or called the? Foramen Magnum
The foramen magnum is? A spinal cord passageway
2 joint surfaces lateral to foramen magnum that articulate with the atlas and axis? Condyles
What bone is shaped like a bat? Sphenoid bone
The sphenoid bone contains the __________ __________ that holds the pituitary gland? Sella Turcica
The vertical projection that anchors the cranial meninges? Crista galli
4 curly bones on lateral wall of nasal cavity? Superior conchae
The holes that fibers from the olfactory nerves project through? Cribiform plate
The joints of the skull are called? Sutures
Between frontal and parietal bones? Coronal
Between parietal and temporal bones? Squamosal
Between parietal and occipital bones? Lamdoidal
Between parietal bones? Sagittal
The lower jaw is? The mandible
The mandible is the only? Movable bone
The paired upper jaw bones are? Maxillae
The maxillae form ___________ part of hard palate and maxillary __________? Anterior part and maxillary sinuses
What forms the bridge of the nose? Nasal bones
The cheek bone is called? Zygomatic bone
The posterior part of hard palate? Palatine bone
The lover part of nasal septum? Vomer
The 2 curly bones on lateral nasal cavity? Inferior conchae
What is another name for Vertebral Column? Spine, spinal column or backbone
There are how many cervical vertebrae? 7 C1-C7
How many Thoracic vertebrae are there? 12 T1-T12
How many Lumbar vertebrae are there? 5 L1-L5
How many sacral vertebrae are there? 5 fused S1-S-5
How many Coccygeal vertebrae are there? 4-5 CO1-CO5
C1 of the neck is called the? Atlas
C2 of the neck is called the? Axis
The atlas holds up the world or your? Head
The axis is a _______ joint? Pivot
What vertebrae articulate with ribs on the body? Thoracic
The canal formed by the vertebral arches that the spinal cord passes through? Vertebral Canal
Vertebrae are connected with what? Ligaments and discs
The pad between bodies is called? Fibrocartilage
The normal curve of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae is called? Lordosis
The normal curve of the Thoracic and sacral vertebrae is called? Kyphosis
Lateral curves are not normal they are called? Scoliosis
The rib cage has ________ pairs of ribs? 12
The sternum includes 3 parts what are they? Manubrium, Body, and Xiphoid
The cartilage on the anterior aspect that attach ribs to the sternum is called? Costal cartilage
How many true ribs are there? 7
Which ribs are the true ribs? 1-7
What are the true ribs true? Because they articulate directly with the sternum.
How many false ribs are there? 3
Which ribs are the false ribs? 8-10
Why are the false ribs false? The costal cartilage only combines with 1-7
How many ribs are floating ribs? 2
Which ribs are floating ribs? 11 and 12
Why are floating ribs called floating ribs? Because they do not articulate with the sternum
The ____ _________ attaches the upper extermity to the axial skeleton? Shoulder girdle
The shoulder girdle includes the ________ and ___________? Scapula and clavicle
The lateral depression for the head of the humerus is called? Glenoid fossa
______ ___________ attaches to the clavicle to form the AC joint? Acromian process
The long bone in the upper are is called? Humerus
Attachment of the deltoid muscle is called? Deltoid tubercle
_________ articulates with the head of the radius? Capitulum
The medial of the 2 forearm bones is called the? Ulna
The lateral of the two forearm bones is called the? Radius
The radius allows ___________ and _________ of the hand? Pronation and supination
How many bones are found in the carpals? 8
The longs bones found in the hand that attach proximally to the carpals and distally to the phalanges? Metacarpals
The bones of the finer are called? Phalanges
There are _ phalanges found in each finger and toe? 3
There are _ phalanges found in the thumb and big toe? 2
The pelvic girdle is made of the pelvic bones called? OS Coxae and inominate
The OS coxae are made of 3 bones that fuse during development called? Ilium, ischium and pubis
Female pelvises are ______ than males? Wider
The _________ socket forms a ball and socket joint with the head of the femur? Acetabelum
The long bone of the thigh is called? Femur
The lateral projection on the proximal end is called? Greater trochanter
The greater trochanter anchors what? Abductors
The medial projection on the proximal end is called? Lesser trochanter
The lesser trochanter anchors what? extensors and adductors
The weight bearing bone of the lower leg? Tibia
The anterior crest forms the what? Tibial tuberosity
The non weight bearing bone of the lower leg? Fibula
The fibula serves as the attachment site for? Muscles
The seven ankle bones are called? Tarsals
The _______ articulates with the tibia? Talus
The largest tarsal and also called the heal bone is the? Calcaneus
The foot bones are called? Metatarsals
The big toe is called the? Halux
______ are immobile and made of cranial and facial sutures? Synarthrosis
___________ are slightly movable are are made of pubic symphysis IVD's? Amphiarthrosis
________ are freely movable like the shoulder, knee, elbow and are called synovial joints? Diarthrosis
The cartilage found on the joint surface of each bone? Hyaline cartilage
The sacs of synovial fluid that provide cushion are called? Bursa
The bursa can be found surrounding what? Tendons and boney prominences
Inflammation of the bursa is called? Bursitis
With age mineral loss tends to become greater than bone growth this is called? Bone mineral loss
Another name for degeneration is? Osteoarthritis
DJD is? Degenerative joint disease
DDD is? Degenerative disc disease
The growth of bone through a ligament or tendon? Osteophytosis
Irritation of periosteum increases osteoblast activity this is called what? Bony hypertrophy
Erosion of articular cartilage is generally found in what type of joints? Weight bearing
Created by: ShanellStock