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HA Ch. 8

Skeletal System IV: Articulations (Joints)

QuestionAnswer
Joints/articulations are sites where elements of the skeleton meet and hold bones together and allow various degrees of movement
joints are the ...part of the skeleton weakest
factors that stabilize joints shapes of articulating surfaces, ligaments, tone of muscles whose tendons cross the joint
classification based on function synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, diarthrotic
arthrosis = arthrotic joint
synarthrotic joint (synarthrosis) allow no movement
amphiarthrotic joint (amphiarthrosis) slight or limited movement
diarthrotic joint (diarthrosis) free movement
classification based on structure fibrous/cartilaginous/bony fusion/synovial joints
fibrous joints are bones that are... connected by fibrous DICT
what does not exist in fibrous joints joint cavity
nearly all fibrous joints are synarthroses
suture (short fibers) synarthrosis, ex: between flat bones of skull
what does not exist in fibrous joints joint cavity
sutures may become completely fused later in life
syndesmosis long fibers
syndesmoses can be either amphiarthrotic or synarthrotic
3 subtypes of fibrous joints suture, syndesmosis, gomphosis
amphiarthrosis example interosseous membrane between the radius and ulna
what does not exist in cartilaginous joints joint cavity
sutures are the edges of bones that interlock as they form fibrous joints
gomphosis "peg in socket" synarthotic, ex: periodontal ligaments (tooth in socket)
cartilaginous joints bones connected by cartilage
symphysis fibrocartilage (amphiarthrosis)
what does not exist in cartilaginous joints joint cavity
most cartilaginous joints are synarthroses and amphiarthroses
bony fusions are totally rigid, immovable joints (synarthrotic)
2 subtypes of cartilaginous joints synchondrosis and symphysis
synchondrosis amphiarthrotic or synarthrotic
example of synchondrosis epiphyseal plate, first rib-to-sternum
the synovial joint is covered by articular cartilage
synarthrosis example anterior tibiofibular joint
synovial joints can be either simple or compound
simple synovial joints are the most common and contain two articulating surfaces
compound synovial joints contain more than 2 articulating surfaces (elbow/knee)
general structures of synovial joints articular cartilage, joint (synovial cavity), articular capsul, synovial fluid, reinforcing ligaments, nerves/vessels, articular disc
articular cartilage (synovial joint) hyaline cartilage; ends of opposing bones are covered by this
joint cavity (synovial) potential space that holds synovial fluid
articular capsul (synovial) 2 layered capsul enclosing joint cavity
example of symphysis pubic, intervertebral discs
inner layer of synovial membrane covers all internal joint surfaces not covered by articular cartilage
inner layer of synovial membrane functions in producing synovial fluid
what doesn not exist in a bony fusion joint cavity
1 subtype of bony fusion synostosis: ex - portions of skull, along the frontal suture, epiphyseal lines
synovial fluid functions to ease movement of joint
reinforcing ligaments are band-like ligaments (intrisnic or capsular) that form the thickened parts of fibrous capsule
intracapsular ligaments are located internal to the capsule
bony fusion is between two seperate bones that have fused together to form a solid mass of bone
nerves and vessels supply extensive capillary beds in synovial membrane and produce blood filtrate, which is the basis of synovial fluid
articular disc intra-articular disc, or meniscus, or disc of fibrocartilage
meniscus is in certain synovial joints that extend internally from the capsule and completely or partially divides the joint cavity into 2
synovial joints have fluid containing joint cavities
the synovial joint is covered by articular cartilage
all synovial joints are diarthrotic
1 subtype of bony fusion synostosis: ex - portions of skull, along the frontal suture, epiphyseal lines
where are bursae or tendon sheaths found shoulder joint
bursae are flattened fibrous sacs lined by a synovial membrane
bursa occurs where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones overlie each other and rub together
tendon sheath are elongated bursae that wraps around a tendon
most joints of the body, esp those in the limbs are synovial joints
tendon sheath occurs only on tendons subjected to friction
simple synovial joints are the most common and contain two articulating surfaces
gliding is of one bone surface across another (carpals, tarsals, flat articular processes of vertebrae)
outer layer of fibrous capsule is made of...and is DICT...continous with the preiosteum of the bone
inner layer of synovial membrane is made of...and lines... loose connective tissue...joint cavity
extension increase angle
synovial fluid also occurs within the articular cartilages
circumduction moving in a circle
reinforcing ligaments are band-like ligaments (intrisnic or capsular) that form the thickened parts of fibrous capsule
special movements of synovial joints include supination/pronation, dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, inversion/eversion, protraction/retraction, elevation/depression, oppostion
most nerves and vessels of synovial joints monitor joint stretching (stretch receptors)
there are some... pain receptors in synovival joints
articular discs occur in joints whose articulating bones have somewhat different shapes
articular discs function in filling the gaps and improves the fit, thereby distributing the loading forces more evenly, minimizing wear and damage
an example of articular discs can be found in the knee joint = meniscus
synovial joint function decrease friction
synovial fluid is... viscous, filtrate of blood arising from capillaries in the synovial membrane
weeping lubrication is a mechanism in which the cartilage-covered bone ends glide on a slippery film of synovial fluid squeezed out of articular cartilages
extracapsular ligaments are located outside the capsule
tendon sheath are elongated bursae that wraps around a tendon
most nerves and vessels of synovial joints monitor joint stretching (stretch receptors)
tendon sheath occurs only on tendons subjected to friction
articular discs function in filling the gaps and improves the fit, thereby distributing the loading forces more evenly, minimizing wear and damage
synovial joint movements contracting muscles produce bone movements at synovial joints (gliding, angular movements)
flexion decrease angle
extension increase angle
abduction movement away from body midline
an example of articular discs can be found in the knee joint = meniscus
adduction movement toward body midline
rotation medial or later, turning movement of a bone around its own long axis
bursae and tendon sheaths are NOT synovial joints; but they contain synovial fluid and are often associated with synovial joints
special movements of synovial joints occur only in a few joints
bursa occurs where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones overlie each other and rub together
nerves and vessels supply extensive capillary beds in synovial membrane and produce blood filtrate, which is the basis of synovial fluid
meniscus is in certain synovial joints that extend internally from the capsule and completely or partially divides the joint cavity into 2
where are bursae or tendon sheaths found shoulder joint
tendon sheath bursae that wraps around a tendon
bursa occurs where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones overlie each other and rub together
angular movements flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation
synovial joint movements contracting muscles produce bone movements at synovial joints (gliding, angular movements)
hyperextension bending beyond straight position
synovial joint movements contracting muscles produce bone movements at synovial joints (gliding, angular movements)
special movements of synovial joints include supination/pronation, dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, inversion/eversion, protraction/retraction, elevation/depression, oppostion
circumduction moving in a circle
pronation turning medially/forward
supination vs pronation radius around ulna at the proximal radioulnar joint
dorsiflexion vs plantar flexion up and down movements of the foot at the ankle
inversion vs eversion special movement of foot (inward or outward)
protraction vs retraction non-angular movements in the anterior and posterior directions
elevation vs depression lifting superiorly vs moving elevated part inferior (jaw)
opposition unique action of the saddle joint of the thumb that allows grasping and manipulation of objects
synovial joints are classified by shape (6 subtypes) plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball and socket
plane joint (nonaxial) ex: intercarpal/intertarsal joins and joints between articular process of vertebrae
plane joints have articular surfaces which are essentially flat planes
plane joints only allow short gliding movements
hinge joints (uniaxial) ex: elbow, ankle, joints between phalanges of fingers
hinge joint: cylindrical end of 1 bone fits into a trough shaped surface on another bone
hinge joints allow...movement angular (door on hinge)
pivot joint (uniaxial) ex: proximal radioulnar joint, articulation between C1 and C2 vertbrae
pivot joint: rounded end of 1 bone fits into a ring formed by another bone plus an encircling ligament
pivot joints: rotating bone can turn only around its long axis
condyloid joint (biaxial) ex: wrist and knuckle (intercarpophalangeal joints)
condyloid joints: egg shaped articular surface of one bone fits into an oval concavity in another
condyloid joints allow moving bone to travel side by side, back and forth, but the bone cannot rotate around its own long axis
saddle joint (biaxial) ex: first carpometacarpal joint in ball of thumb
saddle joint: each articular surface has both convex and concave areas like a saddle
saddle joint: allows the same movements as the condyloid joint does
ball-and-socket (multiaxial) ex: shoulder and hip joints
ball and socket: spherical head of one bone fits into round socket in another
ball and socket: allows movement in all axes, including rotation
types of movement depending on the construction of the joint uniaxial, biaxial, multiaxial, translational/nonaxial
uniaxial movement in one plane or axis
biaxial movement in 2 axes or planes
multiaxial movement in more than 2 axes and planes
translational/nonaxial short gliding movements only
largest and most complex joint in the body knee: complex of many types of joints
the knee is compound and bicondyloid joint because both the femur and tibia have two condylar surfaces
the knee primarily acts as a hinge joint, but allows some medial and lateral rotation when flexed and during leg extension
femoropaterllar joint is an articulation between the patella and the distal/inferior end of the femur
plane joint of knee allows patella to glide across the distal femur as the knee bends
synovial cavity of knee has a complex shape with several incomplete subdivisions and several extensions leading to "blind alleys"
more than a dozen...are associated with the knee joint burase
some examples of the burase are subcutaneous prepatellar, suprapatellar, deep infrapatellar
c-shaped menisci is made of...occur within... articular discs of fibrocartilage...synovial cavity
medial meniscus and lateral meniscus attach... externally to the tibial condyles
both menisci facilitate uniform distribution of synovial fluid and of compression stress
both menisci stabilize the joint by guiding the condyles during flexion, extension, and rotating movements
both menisci prevent side to side rocking of the femur on the tibia
articular capsule encloses the synovial cavity and can be seen on the posterior and lateral aspects of the knee
the capsule is...anteriorly absent
anterior aspect of the knee joint is covered by 3 broad ligaments, which run inferiorly from the patella to the tibia
3 broad ligaments patellar ligament, medial patellar retinaculum and lateral patellar retinaculum
tendons of many muscles in the knee... reinforce the joint capsule and act as critical stabilizers of the knee joint
the most important tendons of the knee are the tendons of the quadriceps femoris and semimembranosus muscles
knee joint capsule is further reinforced by several capsular and extracapsular ligaments all of which become taut when the knee is extended to prevent hyperextension of the leg at the knee
two extracapsular ligaments are located on the lateral and medial sides of the joint capsule fibular and tibial collateral ligaments respectively
fibular collateral ligament (FCL) descends from lateral epicondyle of the femur to the head of the fibula
tibial collateral ligaments (TCL) descends from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of the tibia
FCL and TCL halt leg extension and hyperextension, also prevent lateral and medial movement of the leg at the knee
two strong intracapsular ligaments...which...further stabilize cruciate ligaments...corss eachother and run from the tibia to the femur...the knee joint
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) arises from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia and passes posteriorly to attach to the medial side of the lateral condyle of the femur
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) arises from posterior intercondylar area of the tibia and passes anteriorly to attach to the lateral side of the medial condyle of the femur
both cruciate ligaments function as restraining staps to prevent slipping movements at the knee joint
the acl prevents anterior sliding of the tibia
the pcl prevents anterior sliding of the femur or backward displacement of the tibia
both acl and pcl function together to lock the knee when it extends
Created by: handrzej