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S. Anat6

Skeletal System

Skeletal system provides Support and Protection
Skeletal System protection organs
Hemopoiesis Blood formation
Produced in red bone marrow Hemopoiesis
From stem cells Hemopoiesis
Long bones and epiphyses of flat bones Hemopoiesis
Skeletal system provides_______storage Calcium
Calcium storage Allows blood calcium to be maintained
Calcium storage Essential for many body functions
Bone tissue is _______tissue Connective
Bone cells are called Osteocytes
Bone matrix is made of Calcium salts and collagen
Bone tissue changes______(rarely, constant) Constantly
Types of bone tissue (2) Compact, Spongy
Compact bone (aka) Cortical bone
Compact bone made of columns called… Osteons or Haversion system
______rings surround a central _____ canal Concentric/Haversion
Haversian canals contain_____ blood vessels
Osteocytes are called ______ Lacuna
Osteocytes communicate via____ Canaliculi
Spongy bone (aka) Cancelous bone
Spongy bone is ____(very porous,not porous) Very porous
Spongy bone (is, not) arranged into haversian canals Not
Spongy bone often contain______ Red bone marrow
Spongy bone produces_____, ______and_____ RBC, platelets, WBC
Longer than they are wide Long bone
IE of long bone Femur and Humerus
Parts of long bone Diaphysis, Epiphysis, Metaphysis
Diaphysis (aka) Shaft (middle long part)
Diaphysis characteristics Hallow, Compact bone, Medullary
Medullary (aka) Marrow canal
Diaphysis contain______-mostly adipose Yellow marrow
Epiphysis (aka) Ends of bone
Metaphysis is located Between diaphysis and epiphysis
Metaphysis contains the _____ plate during ____ Growth, Growth
Growth plate (aka) Epiphyseal disc
Bones about the same length and width Short bones
IE of short bones Carpals and Tarsals
Bones that are flat Flat bones
IE of flat bones Ilia, skull and ribs
Bones that are irregularly shaped Irregular bones
IE of irregular bones Vertebrae and facial bones
Articular cartilage is _____ to reduce friction Smooth
Fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers bone Periosteum
Periosteum contains_____ Blood vessels and nerves
Periosteum contains_____that become active after injury osteocytes
During the _____growth the skeleton is a template/model Embryonic
Types of bone development(2) Intramembranous ossification, Endochondria ossification
Cranial and facial bones are made of Flat bones
Osteoblasts form bone matrix in a process called Ossification
Ossification occurs when ______form bone matrix Osteoblasts
Soft spots Fontanel
Fibrous connective membrane still present at birth Fontanel
Fontanel allows______of the skull during birth Compression
Fontanels ossify by age___ Two
Most of the body is made of _______ossification Endochondrial
Various centers of_____in different bones Ossification
____ossification is where bone forms first Primary
Where bone forms first Primary ossification
____ossification centers are where bone forms second Secondary ossification
Where bone is formed second Secondary ossification
In long bones the ______is a ______center of ossification Epiphyseal, secondary
ossification= occurs on the ____side Diaphysis
Cells that break down bone by reabsorption Osteoblasts
Osteoblasts function in _____and ____of bone Maintenance, repair
Factors that effect growth and maintenance Heredity, Nutrition, Hormones, Exercise or physical stress
Genetic potential for height and bone mass Heredity
Provides building blocks Nutrition
Vit A and C are important for the protein part of the ___- Matrix
Gives bone feedback to cause it to strengthen itself Exercise or physical stress
The skeleton has__ divisions Two
2 skeletal division Axial, Appendicular
Forms the asis of the body Axial Skeleton
Skull, spine, thoracic cage are part of ______skeleton Axial
Forms the appendages and girdles Appendicular skeleton
Fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone Ligaments
Hole or opening (base of the skull) Foramen
Depression, dent (shoulder) Fossa
Ridge, edge (ilian crest) Crest
Tunnel, passage Meatus
Projection Process
Flat projection (posterior spine, joints) Facet
Rounded projection (end of femus) Condyle
Flat projection (septum, ethmoid) Plate
______and_____(flat projections) are NEVER interchangable Facet, Plate
Round projection Tubercle
Round projection Tuberocity
Surrounds and protects the brain, eyes, and ears Cranial bones
# Cervical vertebrae Seven
# Thoracic vertebrae Twelve
#Lumbar vertebreae Five
#Sacral Vertebrae Five
#Coccygeal vertebrae four/five
Cervical vertebrae C1-C7
Thoracic vertebrae T1-T12
Lumbar Vertebrae L1-L5
Sacral S1-S5
Coccygeal CO1-CO5
Typical anatomy of spine Body, Spinous process, Transverse process, Facet, Rib facet
Weight bearing part Body
Spinous process Posterior projection bumps
Transvers process Lateral projection
Superior and inferior joints Facet
Thoracic only Rib facet
Cervical (aka) Neck
C1 (aka) Atlas
Holds up the "world" Atlas
Articulates with occipital condyles-nodding motion Atlas
C2 (aka) Axis
C1 pivots on C2 Axis
Odontoid process-pivot joint Axis
50-70% of rotation Axis
Thoracic (aka) Dorsal
Lumbar(aka) Low back
"Tailbone" Sacrum
Vestigial structure that is a remnant of a tail Coccyx
Vertebrae connects with _____and_____ Ligaments, Disks
Projections serve as attachment sites for_____ muscles
Fibrocartilage pad between boddies Discs
Symphysis joints have Little movement
Discs are ____joints Symphysis
Discs permit ____and ____movement Cushion, Movement
There are ____normal A-P Curves Four
Lordosis Curve in the Cervical and lumbar region
Kyphosis Curve in Thoracic and Sacral region
Later curves (are, not) normal Not
Lateral curve greater than 15 degrees Scoliosis
Superior sternum Manubrium
Main, body Sternum Sternum-Gladiolum
Inferior sternum Xiphoid process
Cartilage on the anterior aspect that attach ribs to sternum Costal cartilage
Ribs 1-7 are called True ribs
Articulate directly with the sternum True ribs
Ribs 8-10 are called Flase ribs
Costal cartilage combines with 7th ribs False rib
Ribs 11 & 12 are called Floating ribs
Do not articulate with the sternum Floating ribs
Arch runs A-P Longitudinal arch
"Arch of foot" Longitudinal arch
Arch runs transvers to longitudical Transverse arch
Arch along toe line Transverse arch
Adaptation for walking Arch of foot
Supported by ligaments Arch of foot
Articulations (aka) Joints
Joints are classified on Amount of motion, anatomy of joint
Joints without movement (cranial and facial sutures) Synarthrosis
Slightly movable (pubic symphysis IVD) Amphiarthrosis
Free moving (shoulder, knee, elbow) Diarthrosis
Synovial membrane lines the capsule Synovial joint
Hyaline cartilage on the joint surface of each bone Synovial joint
Sacs of synovial fluid that provide cushion Bursa
Can be found surrounding tendon or bony prominence Bursa
Permits tendons to slide easliy Bursa
Bursae can be found on ____or _____- Tendons, bony porminences
Osteoarthritis (aka) Degeneration
DDD Degenerative disc disease
DJD Degenerative joint disease
Erosion of articular cartilage Degeneration
groth of bone through a ligamentor tendon Osteophytosis
irritation of peristeum increse oseoblast activity Bony hypertrophy
Allows movement by providing attachment sites for skeletal muscles Framework
Calcium storage Allows blood calcium to be maintained
Epiphysis is made of ____bone covered with a thin layer of______bone Spongy, Compact
Short, Flat, and irregular bones are made of_____bone covered with thin layers of_____bone Spongy, Compact
Periosteum (does, does not) cover where articular cartilage is Does not
Fibers merge with ______and ______ to attach them to the bone Ligaments and Tendons
During the embryonic growth the skeleton is a template/model of______ or _____ ______tissue Model cartilage, fibrous connective
_____(#) membranes of fibrous connective tissue are formed during ossification Two
In the 3 month of development ______differentiate from______that are present Osteoblast, Fibroblasts
During endochondrial ossification______/template is replaced by bone form osteoblasts Cartilage model
Ossification sites close at age 16-25 under the influence of_____or_____ Estrogen, Testosterone
Osteoblasts reabsorb the inner diaphysis of long bones to form____- Medullary
Vit D is required for ____of calcium and phosphorus in the small intestines Absorption
Decrese bone matrix causeing weakness and higher potential for fracture Osteoporosis
Made of 8 cranial bones, 14 facial bones, 6 auditory ossicles, hyoid bone Skull
Typical anatomy of spine Body, Spinous process, Transverse process, Facet, Rib facet
Articulates with ribs on the body and transvers process on each side Thoracic
Lordosis Curve in the Cervical and lumbar region
Protects organs and provides attachement for muscles to allow breathing Rib cage
Joint Capsule made of fibrous connective tissue surronds joint Synovial joint
Foramen Magnum means Large hole
Foramen magnum is the _____passageway Spinal cord
2 joint surfaces lateral to foramen mangum that articulate with the skull COndyles
Condyles articulate with ____- Skull
Shaped like a bad Shenoid bone
Sphenoid bone contains the ______ that holds the pituitary gland Sellar turcia
Vertical prjection that anchors the cranial menengis Crista galli
Forms the upper nasal septum Perpindicular plate
Holes that fibers from the olfactory nerves project through Cribriform plate
4 Curly bones on the lateral wall of nasal cavity superior conchae
Joints in the skull Sutures
Joints of skull are ____- Immobile
Joint between frontal and parietal bones COronal
Joint between parietal and temporal bones Squamous
Joint between parietal and occipital bones Lambdoidal
Joint between parietal bones Sagittal
Lower jaw Mandible
The only moveable facial bone Mandible
Paired upper jaw bones Maxillae
Maxilla form the _____ part of the hard palate anterior
Forms the bridge of nose Nasal bone
Medial orbit Lacrimal bone
"Cheek bone" Zygomatic bone
Posterior part of the hard palate Palatine bone
Lower part of nasal sinus Vomer
2 culy bones on lateral nasal cavity Inferior conchae
Shoulder girdle (aka) Pectoral Girdle
Attaches the upper extremety to axial skeleton Shoulder girdle
Shoulder girdle includes (2) Scapula and clavicle
Scapula (aka) Shoulder blade
Sererates the infraspinous and superspinous fossae Spine of the scapula
Attachment for the bicepital tendons Corocoid process
Joint capsule for the head of the humerus Glenoid fossa
Glenoid fossa forms a _____and_____joint Ball and socket
Attaches to clavicle to form the AC joint Acromian process
Clavicle (aka) Collar bone
_____end of the clavicle attaches to the acromion proces Acromial
_____end of the clavicle attaches to the sternum at the manubrium Sternal
Long bone in upper arm Humerus
Deltoid_____attaches to the deltoid muscle Tubercle
______end of humerus articulates with the ulna to form a hinge joint Distal
Articulates with the head of the radius Capitulum
Medial of the 2 forearm bones Ulna
Lateral of the 2 forearm bones Radium
Allows pronation and supination of the hand Radium
lond bones in the hand Metacarpals
Pelvic girdle (aka) Pelvis
Pelvic girdle is made of bones called Coxae or innominate bones
Coxae is made of (3)bones thate fuse during development Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
Forms the ball and socket joint with the head of the femur Acetabulum
Weight bearing jont Acetabulum
Long bone of the thigh Femur
lateral projection on the proximal end of femur Greater trochanter
Medial projection on the promimal end of femur Lesser trochanter
"kneecap" Patella
Weight bearing bone of lower leg Tibia
None weight bearing bone of lower leg Fibula
Tarsals have ___ ankle bones 7
Heel bone (aka Calcaneus
Largest tarsal Calcaneus
Created by: Sarsileigh



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