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The muscular system

Muscles and accessory structures

Muscles and accessory structures make up the what? Muscular system
The muscular system provides ______ and _______? Movement and Mobility
The muscular system produces? Heat
The muscular system includes the ___________ muscles? Skeletal
Muscle cells are specialized for? Contraction
Fibers do what to produce movement? Shorten
Each muscle is made up of thousands of individual muscle called? Cells AKA fibers
Why does the brain need to recruit higher numbers of fibers? Based on the weight of the object. or Based on the need.
What anchors muscle to bone and other muscles? Tendons
Tendons are usually what shape? Round
A flat sheet like tendon is called what? Aponeurosis
Tendons are mad of what connective tissue? Fibrous
What covers the muscle? Deep fascia
Deep fascia merges with ____________ to anchor to bone? Periosteum
Where the muscle originates is called what? Origin
The origin is usually more ___________? Stationary
The opposite end of the origin? Insertion
What are the muscle relationships or arrangements? Protagonist, Antagonist and Synergist
The primary muscle or mover that brings about the desired movement? Protagonist
The muscle that does the opposite of the desired movement? Antagonist
The secondary muscles that bring about the desired movement? Synergist
What lobes in the brain initiate the signal to the muscle in the premotor and motor areas of the cortex? Frontal lobes
What part of the brain coordinates the movements of the muscles? Cerebellum
The sensation of the muscle is sensed in the __________ lobes for conscious input and the _______________ for subconscious input? Parietal lobes and Cerebellum
A slight contraction of muscle that is present most of the time is called what? Muscle tone
Muscle tone changes with what? Position
The heat from normal muscle metabolism is called what? Thermogenesis
Thermogenesis is due to what? Decomposition and friction
Thermogenesis is increased with what? Increased activity
What is another name for muscle sense? Proprioception
The brains awareness of the position of the muscle and the joint? Proprioception
Proprioception is Sensed by what ____________ receptors? Stretch
Proprioception also detects changes in the ______________ of the muscle? Length
What are the Energy sources for muscle contraction? ATP, Creatine phosphate and Glycogen
The ATP Energy source is __________ present, but is _____________ lasting? Already. Short
The secondary energy source is? Creatine Phosphate
Creatine Phosphate breaks into _________ and __________ to release ___________ to make more __________? Creatine, Phosphate, Energy, ATP
Creatinine is a what? Waste product
Creatinine is excreted through what in the body? The kidneys and urine
The most abundant energy source is what? Glycogen
Glycogen is broken down into what? Glucose
Glucose goes through what? Cellular respiration
What carried Oxygen in the blood? Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin contains what which binds the oxygen? Iron
What carries Oxygen in the muscle? Myoglobin
Myoglobin makes the muscles what color and carries what to bind the oxygen? Red and Iron
When the Oxygen need is greater than the supply is called what? Oxygen debt
The deficiency of Oxygen is called what? Hypoxia
Glucose is converted into what in anaerobic respiration? Lactic acid
Lactic acid is converted to what in the __________? Pyruvic acid in the Liver
Breathing to supply the oxygen required by the liver to detoxify lactic acid is called? Recovery oxygen uptake
Breathing slows gradually after exercise so that we can? Recover
The microscopic structure of the muscle is called? Muscle fiber
The motor nerve ending at each muscle fiber is called the? Neuromuscular Junction
The neuromuscular junction has how many fibers? One each
Some of the names for the neuromuscular junction are? Axon terminal, synaptic knob and motor end plate
The enlarged end of the motor neuron is the what? Axon terminal
The axon terminal contains sacs of what? Acetylcholine of ACh
The cell membrane of the muscle fiber is called? Sarcolemma
The sarcolemma contains __________ sites for ACh? Receptor
Sarcolemma also contains cholinesterase that _______________ ACh? Deactivates
The junction between the axon terminal and the muscle fiber sarcolemma? Synapse
Another name for synapse is? Synaptic cleft
Contractile units in the muscle fiber are called what? Sarcomere
Groups of sarcomeres are called what? Myofibrils
The thin filaments? Actin
Thin contractile proteins that interact with myosin? Actin
Thicker contractile proteins are called? Myosin
Thick filaments are? Myosin
The protein backbone that anchors actin filaments? Z-line
The Z-line forms the end boundaries of the what? Sarcomere
The protein that anchors myosin to the Z-line is what? Titin
The two proteins that prevent contraction when relaxed are? Triponin and Tropomyosin
The ER of the muscle cell is called the? Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores what? Calcium ions
Nerve impulses cause the release of ______ from the axon terminal? ACh
ACh causes___________ impulse in the sarcolemma? Electrical
Actin filaments fulling against myosin filaments is called the? Sliding filament mechanism
Sarcolemma at rest is? Polarized
Channels that carry the action potential to the inner parts of the cell are? Transverse tubules
Another name for transverse tubules is? T Tubules
Resetting the actionn potential is? Sarcolemma repolarized
Sliding filament mechanism is? Contraction
Reducing the angle of a joing is? Flection
Increasing the angle of a joint is? Extention
Tilting the foot/ankle medially is? Inversion
Tilting the foot/ankle laterally is? Eversion
Rotating the palm up is? Supination
Rotating the palm down is? Pronation
Side bending is Right or Left is? Lateral flection
Rotating around a joing is? Rotation
Moving in a circular motion without rotation is? Circumduction
Bringing a part away from the midline is? Abduction
Bringing a part toward the midline is? Adduction
Bringing a part toward the midling or posteriorly is? Retraction
Bringing a part away from the midling or anteriorly is? Protraction
Decreasing angle of ankle joint is? Dorsiflection
Increasing angle of ankle joint is? Plantar flection
During polarization the outside of the Sarcolemma has a __________ charge relative to the inside? Positive +
During polarization the inside of the sarcolemma is said to have a _____ charge? Negative -
__________ ions are more abundant outside the cell of the polarized sarcolemma? Sodium Na+
___________ ions are more abundant inside the cell of the polarized sarcolemma? Potassium K+
What is the purpose of the sodium pump? Transfers the soduim back out
What is the purpose of the potassium pump? Transfers the potassium back in
Both of the pumps are what? Active transport mechanisms
The active transport mechnisms require what? ATP
Created by: ShanellStock



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