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Stack #84747

Most Common... - USMLE Step 1 - First Aid

Most Common...(Answer)
Bacteremia/pneumonia (IVDA) S. aureus
Bacteria associated with cancer H. pylori
Bacteria found in GI tract Bacteroides (2nd MC = E. coli)
Brain tumor (adults) Mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma
Brain tumor (kids) Medulloblastoma (cerebellum)
Brain tumor - supratentorial (kids) Craniopharyngioma
Breast cancer Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the U.S., 1 in 9 ♀will develop breast cancer)
Breast mass Fibrocystic change (in postmenopausal ♀, carcinoma is the MC)
Breast tumor (benign) Fibroadenoma
Bug in debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia pt Klebsiella
Cardiac 1° tumor (adults) Myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")
Cardiac 1° tumor (kids) Rhabdomyoma
Cardiac tumor (adults) Mets
Cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy
Chromosomal disorder Down syndrome (associated with ALL, Alzheimer's, and endocardial cushion defects)
Chronic arrhythmia Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
Congenital cardiac anomaly VSD
Constrictive pericarditis Tuberculosis
Coronary a. involved in thrombosis LAD > RCA > LCA
Cyanosis (early; less common) Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Cyanosis (late; more common) VSD, ASD, PDA (close with indomethacin; open with misoprostol)
Demyelinating disease Multiple sclerosis
Dietary deficit Iron
Epiglottitis Haemophilus influenzae type B
Esophageal cancer Squamous cell carcinoma
Gene involved in cancer p53 tumor suppressor gene
Group affected by cystic fibrosis Caucasians (fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies, mucous plugs/lung infections)
Gynecologic malignancy Endometrial carcinoma
Heart murmur Mitral valve prolapse
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis Mitral
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis in IVDA Tricuspid
Heart valve (rheumatic fever) Mitral valve (2nd MC = aortic)
Helminth infections (U.S.) Enterobius vermicularis (2nd MC = Ascaris lumbricoides)
Hereditary bleeding disorder von Willebrand's
Kidney stones Calcium = radiopaque (2nd MC = ammonium = radiopaque; formed by urease⊕ organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)
Liver disease Alcoholic liver disease
Location of brain tumors (adults) Supratentorial
Location of brain tumors (kids) Infratentorial
Lysosomal storage disease Gaucher's disease
Male cancer Prostatic carcinoma
Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever Hodgkin's disease
Malignant skin tumor Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Mets to bone Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
Mets to brain Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
Mets to liver Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lung carcinomas
Motor neuron disease ALS
Neoplasm (kids) ALL (2nd MC = cerebellar medulloblastoma)
Nephrotic syndrome Membranous glomerulonephritis
Obstruction of ♂ urinary tract BPH
Opportunistic infections in AIDS Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Organ receiving mets Adrenal glands (due to rich blood supply)
Organ sending mets Lung > breast, stomach
Ovarian tumor (benign) Serous cystadenoma
Ovarian tumor (malignant) Serous cystadenocarcinoma
Pancreatic tumor Adenocarcinoma (head of pancreas)
Pt with ALL/CLL/AML/CML ALL—child, CLL&AML—adult>60, CML—adult 35-50
Pt with Hodgkin's Young ♂ (except nodular sclerosis type - ♀)
Pt with minimal change disease Young child
Pt with Reiter's
Pituitary tumor Prolactinoma (2nd MC = somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma)
Preventable cancer Lung cancer
1° bone tumors (adults) Multiple myeloma
1° hyperparathyroidism Adenomas (2nd MC = hyperplasia; 3rd MC = carcinoma)
1° liver tumor Hepatoma
Renal tumor Renal cell carcinoma - associated with von Hippel-Lindau and acquired polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (erythropoietin, renin, PTH, ACTH)
2° hyperparathyroidism Hypocalcemia of chronic renal failure
STD Chlamydia
Site of diverticula Sigmoid colon
Site of metastasis Regional lymph nodes
Site of metastasis (2nd MC) Liver
Sites of atherosclerosis Abdominal aorta > coronary a. > popliteal a. > carotid a.
Skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma
Stomach cancer Adenocarcinoma
Testicular tumor Seminoma
Thyroid cancer Papillary carcinoma
Tracheoesophageal fistula Lower esophagus joins trachea/upper esophagus-blind pouch
Tumor in ♂ Prostate carcinoma
Tumor in ♀ Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
Tumor of infancy Hemangioma
Tumor of adrenal medulla (adults) Pheochromocytoma (benign)
Tumor of adrenal medulla (kids) Neuroblastoma (malignant)
Type of Hodgkin's Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
Type of non-Hodgkin's Follicular, small cleaved
Type of pituitary adenoma Prolactinoma
Vasculitis Temporal arteritis (risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of opthalmic a.)
Viral encephalitis HSV
Vitamin deficiency (U.S.) Folic acid (pregnant ♀ are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply)
Created by: CopaceticMedic