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BIO201 - Ch 14 - Autonomic Nervous System - Marieb/Hoehn - Rio Salado - AZ

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) System of motor neurons that innervates smooth & cardiac muscles & glands.
Sample of activities conducted by ANS Shunts blood to "needy" areas, slows or speeds heart rate, adjusts blood pressure & body temp, increases/decreases stomach secretions.
Major difference between somatic & autonomic NS. (1) Their effectors, (2) efferent pathways, & (3) target organ responses to their neurotransmitters.
Somatic NS stimulates __ muscles, where the ANS innervates __ muscles. Skeletal, Cardiac/smooth/glands
Parasympathetic Nerves Of the ANS - tends to slow body down & divert energy to basic tasks - works in opposition to sympathetic.
Sympathetic Nerve OF ANS - nerves that increase overall body activities when heightened - excitement/danger, "fight-or-flight".
Meninges Membranes of CT layered between skull & brain - cover & protect CNS neurons & blood vessels.
In somatic NS, motor neuron cellbodies are in __ & axons extend in __ nerves. CNS, Spinal or cranial nerves
Somatic motor fibers are typically __. Thick, group A - conduct impulses rapidly.
ANS uses a __ to its effectors. 2 neuron chain
In ANS, the cell body of 1st neuron is the __. Preganglionic neuron
The preganglionic neuron resides __. In the brain or spinal cord
The axon of the first neuron is the __. Preganglionic axon
The preganglionic axon synapses with __. The 2nd motor neuron, or ganglionic neuron.
The axon of the 2nd motor neuron is __. The ganglionic axon
The ganglionic axon extends to __. The effector organ
Preganglionic axons are lightly __ & post-ganglionic axons are __. Myelinated (thin), unmyelinated (even thinner).
Conduction through autonomic efferent chain is __ than somatic motor system. Slower
For most of their course, many pre- & post-ganglionic fibers are incorporated into __. Spinal & cranial nerves
Autonomic ganglia are __ & contain cell bodies of __. Motor ganglia, motor neurons
The somatic motor division __ ganglia. Lacks
The dorsal root ganglia are part of the __. Sensory (not motor) division of the PNS.
All somatic motor neurons release __ @ synapses. Acetylcholine (ACh)
The effect of somatic motor neurons is always __. Excitatory - to cause contraction.
Postganglionic autonomic fibers release __ & __. Norepinephrine (NE) & acetylcholine (ACh).
In ANS, norepinephrine (NE) is secreted by __. Most sympathetic fibers.
In ANS, ACh is released by __. Parasympathetic fibers.
Somatic & autonomic motor activities regulated by __. Higer brain centers.
Nearly all spinal & many cranial nerves contain __. Both somatic & autonomic fibers.
Two divisions of ANS are? Parasympathetic & sympathetic.
Though __ the 2 ANS divisions counterbalance each other's activities. Dual innervation
The parasympathetic division is sometimes called __. The resting & digesting system - keeps body energy use low - housekeeping.
Good visual to remember parasympathetic division. Person relaxing after a meal & reading newspaper - blood pressure/heart rate low, digesting meal & pupils constricted to read.
Sympathetic division often referred to as __. "Flight-or-fight" system - excited, threatened.
Changes in brain wave patterns & galvanic skin resistance due to __ when lying. Sympathetic
Parasympathetic fibers emerge from __. The brain & sacral spinal cord (craniosacral)
Sympathetic fibers originate in the __. Thoracolumbar region of spinal cord.
Parasympathetic division has __ preganglionic & __ postganglionic fibers. Long, short
Sympathetic division has __ preganglionic & __ post ganglionic fibers. Short, long
Most parasympathetic ganglia are located __. In the visceral effector organs.
Most sympathetic ganglia lie __. Close to the spinal cord.
All preganglionic fibers release __. ACh
All parasympathetic postganglionic fibers release __. Acetylcholine
Most sympathetic post ganglionic fibers release __. Norepinephrine
Stimulated adrenal medullary cells release __ into the blood. Norepinephrine & epinephrine
Which division of NAS is called the craniosacral division? Parasympathetic
Terminal ganglia are located where? Close to or within target organs.
Through which 4 cranial nerves do preganglionic fibers run? Oculomotor (III), facial (VII), Glossopharyngeal (IX), & Vagus (X)
The cell bodies are in the __ within eye orbits. Ciliary ganglion
Preganglionic fibers in facial nerve (VII) synapse where? Pterygopalatine ganglia - near maxillae.
Salivary glands - parasympathetic fibers synapse where? Mandibular ganglia
Partoid gland & glossopharyngeal IX - synapse where? Otic ganglia - near ears
Postganglionic fibers of parasympathetic __ lie in cranial nerves. Do not
The __ nerves have broadest facial distribution of all cranial nerves & useful for glands & smooth muscle stimulation of parasympathetic. Trigeminal nerves V
Vagal nerve fibers account for 90% of preganglionic fibers in body & arise from __. Medulla
Vagus nerves in thorax brach to which 4 plexuses? Cardiac, pulmonary, esophageal, & aortic plexuses.
Sacral outflow of parasympathetic arise from? S2-S4 form pelvicsplanchnic Nerves
Which division of ANS is more complex? Sympathetic Division
Sympathetic division also called __. Thoracolumbar
Which ANS division innervates more organs? Sympathetic - visceral organs & structures.
Arrector pili, sweat glands, arteries, & veins innervated by which ANS division? Sympathetic - smooth muscles in each.
Allpreganglionoic sympathetic fibers arise from cell bodies where? In spinal cord segments T1-L2 (thoracolumbar division)
What produces the lateral horns? Numerous preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the gray matter of spinal cord.
What are the visceral motor zones? Lateral horns
Ventral horns house __ neurons. Somatic motor neurons
Lateral horns are absent where? In the sacral region of spinal cord.
Path of sympathetic fiber after ventral root. Ventral root =>white ramus communicans=>sympathetic trunk (chain) ganglion
Sympathetic trunks flank each side of what? The vertebral column (paravertebral ganglia)
There are __ ganglia in each sympathetic trunk. 23 - 3c, 11T, 4L, 4S, 1C
Splanchnic nerves synapse in __ ganglia located anterior to vertebral column. Collateral (prevertebral) - occur only in abdomen & pelvis.
Celiac,superior & inferior mesenteric ganglia are __. Collateral (prevertebral) ganglia
The color of gray & white Rami communicantes are due to? Myelination
Rami communicantes are associated only with the __ division. Sympathetic - parasympathetic doesn't run in spinal nerves.
Sympathetic preganglionic fibers serving head ascend the __ to synapse with __. Sympathetic trunk, superior cervical ganglion
Superior cervical ganglion sends direct branches to __. The heart
Sympathetic fibers __ activity of large intestine, bladder, & reproductive organs. Inhibit
A visceral reflex arc has __. 2 Neurons in its motor component.
Where are cell bodies of visceral sensory neurons? Sensory ganglia of associated cranial nerves or in dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord.
3 neuron reflex arcs occur where? In walls of gastrointestional tract
Why is there referred pain? Visceral pain afferents travel same pathways as somatic pain fibers.
ACh-releasing fibers are called __ fibers. Cholinergic
Norepinephrine (NE) - releasing fibers are called __ fibers. Adrenergic
All ACh receptors are __ or __. Nicotinic or muscarinic
ACh binding to nicotinic receptors is always __. Stimulatory
Knowing locations of cholinergic & adrenergic receptors allows __. Proper prescription of drugs.
Most glands (except adrenal & sweat) are activated by __ fibers. Parasympathetic
Most blood vessels receive only __ fibers. Sympathetic
The effects produced by sympathetic activation are __. Longer lasting
The __ is the integrator of ANS activity. Hypothalamus
Though hypothalamus is boss, the __ exerts most direct influence over autonomic functions. Brainstem - reticular formation.
Raynaud's Disease Skin of fingers & toes turn blue & apinful when cold or emotionally distressed.
Autonomic Dyreflexia Uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons - occurs in quadriplegia or spinal injury above T6 - in 1st year after injury - triggered by pain or overfilled bladder - Blood pressure increase - can stroke.
Created by: Ladystorm



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