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The lymphatic system returns ____ ____ back to the bloodstream. interstitial fluid
The lymphatic system maintains blood ____ ____. volume levels
The lymphatic system transports ____ and ____-____ ____ into the bloodstream through lacteals. lipids, lipid-soluble vitamins
The lymphatic system aids in ____ and ____ of lymphocytes. production, maturation
The lymphatic system generates an immune response against antigens in the ____ ____. interstitial fluid
Name the 8 parts of the lymph vessel network from smallest to largest components: 1) lymph 2) lymphatic capillaries 3) lymphatic vessels 4) lymphatic trunks 5) lymphatic ducts 6) lymphatic cells 7) lymphatic nodules 8) lymphatic organs
Lymph is comprised of: _____ _____, _____, and _____ _____. interstitial fluid, solutes, foreign materials
Lymphatic capillaries are closed-ended tubes found interspersed among most blood _____ _____ (except bone marrow and _____) capillary beds, CNS
Lymphatic capillaries resemble blood capillaries (endothelium) but they are _____ in diameter, have no _____ _____ and have overlapping endothelial cells that act as one-way valves allowing _____ _____ a one-way entrance into lymphatic capillaries larger, basement membrane, interstitial fluid
The gastrointestinal tract contains specialized lymph capillaries called _____ that collect not only interstitial fluid, but also _____ and _____-_____ _____ lacteals, lipids, lipid-soluble vitamins
The lymph collected from the gastrointestinal system has a milky color due to _____ absorption and is called _____ lipid, chyle
Lymphatic capillaries merge to form _____ _____. lymphatic vessels
_____ _____ resemble venules, in that they have components of all three vascular tunics and possess valves similar to veins. Lymphatic vessels
_____ lymphatic vessels bring lymph IN to a lymph node Afferent
_____ lymphatic vessels transport filtered lymph OUT and away from the lymph node Efferent
Lymph is continuously examined for _____ antigens
Left and right lymphatic trunks form from merging _____ _____. lymphatic vessels
Jugular trunks drain lymph from _____ and _____. head, neck
Subclavian trunks drain lymph from _____ _____, breasts and _____ _____ wall. upper limbs, superficial thoracic
Bronchiomediastinal trunks drain lymph from deep _____ structures. thoracic
Intestinal trunks drain lymph from most _____ structures. abdominal
Lumbar trunks drain lymph from lower _____, _____ wall and _____ organs. limbs, abdominopelvic, pelvic
Lymphatic _____ are formed from the fusion of lymphatic trunks. ducts
The right lymphatic duct is located deep to the _____ _____ and returns lymph at the junction of the right subclavian and _____ _____ veins. right clavicle, internal jugular
The right lymphatic duct returns lymph from the right side of the _____ and _____, right _____ _____ and right side of the _____. head, neck, upper limb, thorax
The _____ _____ is the largest lymphatic vessel. thoracic duct
The thoracic duct begins just inferior to the diaphragm as a rounded saclike structure called the _____ _____. cisterna chyli
The thoracic duct collects lymph from most of the body, excluding the _____ _____ _____ drainage. right lymphatic duct
The thoracic duct passes through the _____ opening of the diaphragm and returns lymph into the junction between the left subclavian and _____ _____ veins. aortic, internal jugular
Some lymphatic cells destroy antigens, others produce _____ that bind and immobilize the antigen. Other lymphatic cells become_____ _____, which remember a past antigen and initiate a _____ immune response if the antigen reappears. antibodies, memory cells, faster
Lymph is the combination of _____ _____, dissolved _____ and _____ material. interstitial fluid, solutes, foreign
Lymphatic capillaries drain into ____ ____. lymphatic vessels
Macrophages are ____ that have migrated to the lymphatic system. monocytes
Nurse cells are special epithelial cells in ____ that secrete ____ hormones. thymus, thymic
The main antigen-presenting cells in the immune system are the ____ ____. dendritic cells
Lymphocytes are the most ____ cells in the lymphatic system. abundant
The body contains three types of lymphocytes: ____ cells, ____ cells, and ____ cells. T, B, NK
T-cells, B-cells, and NK-cells migrate through the lymphatic system and search for the presence of ____. antigens
____ make up about 70–85% of body lymphocytes. T-lymphocytes
T-lymphocytes express a ____ ____ ____ (CD) that can recognize a particular antigen. plasma membrane coreceptor
Two main groups of T-lymphocytes are: ____ and ____ T-lymphocytes. helper, cytotoxic
Helper T-lymphocytes primarily contain the ____ coreceptor and are referred to as ____ cells or ____ cells. CD4, CD4+, T4
T4 cells initiate and oversee the immune response in two ways: they present the ____ to other lymphocytes and secrete ____, which are hormones that activate other lymphatic cells. antigen, cytokines
____ ____ are also called CD8+ cells or T8 cells, they contain the CD8 coreceptor. Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
____ ____ come in direct contact with infected or foreign cells and kill them. Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes act only after activated by a ____ ____ that presents an antigen to it. helper T-lymphocyte
____ make up about 15–30% of body lymphocytes. B-lymphocytes
____ contain antigen receptors to only one antigen and produce immunoglobulins or antibodies to that single antigen. B-lymphocytes
B-lymphocytes become activated when presented with an antigen from a helper ____. T-lymphocyte
Most of the activated B-lymphocytes become ____ ____ that produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. plasma cells
____ ____ may be either short-lived (less than a week) or long-lived (months or years). Plasma cells
The long-lived B-lymphocytes are called ____ ____ and confer years or lifetime immunity to certain antigens. memory B-lymphocytes
NK cells are also called large ____ ____. granular lymphocytes
____ ____ are a relatively small percentage of all lymphocytes. NK cells
NK cells tend to express the ____ receptors. CD16
Unlike T-cells and B-cells that respond to one antigen, NK cells can kill a wide variety of infected cells and some ____ cells. cancerous
____ is the process of lymphocyte development. Lymphopoiesis
The final result of lymphopoiesis is that the lymphocyte becomes ____, meaning the cell can participate in the immune response. immunocompetent
All lymphocytes originate in ____ ____ ____ but their maturation sites differ. red bone marrow
____ ____, or ____ ____ are oval clusters of lymphatic cells with some extracellular matrix but not surrounded by a connective tissue capsule. Lymphatic nodules, lymphatic follicles
The center of a lymphatic nodule is called the germinal center; contains proliferating ____ and ____. ____ are located outside the germinal center. B-lymphocytes, macrophages, T-lymphocytes
Lymphatic nodules ____ and ____ antigens. filter, attack
Lymphatic nodules are located in the mucosa of the ____, ____, ____ and ____tracts. gastrointestinal, respiratory, genital, urinary
Lymphatic nodules monitor and respond to antigens that may enter the____, ____, ____ and ____tracts. gastrointestinal, respiratory, genital, urinary
MALT stands for: ____ ____ ____ ____ mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue
MALT is very prominent in the ____. These nodules are called ____ ____. ileum, Peyer patches
Tonsils are located mainly in the ____. pharynx
Tonsils are large clusters of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix that do not have a completed ____ ____. surrounding capsule
The outer edges of tonsils are ____ to form ____, which allow for trapping of antigens to be presented to the lymphocytes. invaginated, crypts
____ tonsils or ____ are located in the posterosuperior wall of the nasopharynx. Pharyngeal tonsils, adenoids
Palatine tonsils are located in the ____ wall of the ____ ____. posterolateral, oral cavity
Lingual tonsils are located along the ____ ____ of the tongue. posterior, 1/3
Lymphatic organs consist of lymphatic cells and extracellular matrix and are completely surrounded by a ____ ____ ____. connective tissue capsule
The main lymphatic organs are: ____, ____ ____, and ____. thymus, lymph nodes, spleen
The bilobed lymphatic organ located superficial to the heart. ____ thymus
The thymus consists of two fused thymic lobes which are divided into ____. lobules
Each lobule has an outer ____ and an inner ____. cortex, medulla
The thymus continues to grow until ____ and then begins to regress in size and function. puberty
In adults, the thymus becomes replaced mostly by ____ ____ ____. adipose connective tissue.
The site of T-lymphocyte differentiation and maturation is the ____. thymus
The thymus cortex contains immature ____. T-lymphocytes
The thymus medulla contains mature ____. T-lymphocytes
In adulthood, T-lymphocytes can only be produced by ____ ____ and not by maturation of new cells in the thymus. cell division
____ ____ in thymus secrete thymic hormone that helps maturation of lymphocytes. Nurse cells
Lymphocytes inside thymus are protected from antigens by the ____-____ ____. When they differentiate they go to the ____ where they are exposed. blood-thymus barrier, medulla
Small, round or oval structures located along the pathway of lymph vessels: ____ ____ lymph nodes
____ ____ are typically found in clusters ranging from 1–25 mm in diameter. Lymph nodes
The primary function of a lymph node is to filter antigens from the ____ and initiate ____ ____. lymph, immune response
The most apparent lymph node clusters occur as: ____ lymph nodes, ____ lymph nodes and ____ lymph nodes. axillary, inguinal, cervical
Lymph nodes are surrounded by a tough ____ ____ ____. connective tissue capsule
Internal extensions of the lymph nodes’ capsule, ____, project into the node, dividing it into compartments. trabeculae
Lymphatic cells surround the trabeculae and lymphatic sinuses (or ____ ____) provide a pathway for lymph flow. cortical sinuses
Lymph node is divided into an outer ____ and an inner ____. cortex, medulla
Lymph node cortex consists of nodules and sinuses called ____ ____. cortical sinuses
The lymph node medulla contains medullary ____ and medullary ____. cords, sinuses
____ vessels deliver lymph to the node. Afferent
Lymph exits nodes via ____ ____ at an indentation of the node called the____. efferent vessels, hilum
Cancer cells travel easily through the lymph node system, called ____. metastasis
A lymph node enlarged by cancer cells is going to be ____ and not ____. firm, tender
The ____ is the largest lymphatic organ in body just lateral to left kidney. spleen
A splenic artery/vein enters/leaves the spleen via a ____ or indentation on its medial surface. hilum
The spleen surrounded by a dense irregular connective tissue capsule, which sends extensions called ____ into the organ. trabeculae
Trabecular vessels are branches of splenic ____ and ____. They extend within the trabeculae. arteries, veins
Cells around the trabeculae are subdivided into ____ ____ and ____ ____. white pulp, red pulp
____ pulp surrounds each cluster of ____ pulp. Red, white
____ pulp is associated with the ____ supply and consists of T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages. White, arterial
In the center of each white pulp cluster (that is surrounded by red pulp) there is a central ____. artery
Red pulp is associated with the ____ supply. venous
Red pulp consists of splenic cords and splenic sinusoids that contain ____, ____ ____, and some plasma cells. erythrocytes, platelets, macrophages
Blood cells can easily enter and leave the blood stream in the spleen because of the discontinuous basal lamina of the capillaries in the ____. splenic sinusoids
The spleen initiates an immune response when ____ are found in blood (white pulp function). antigens
The spleen serves as a reservoir for ____ and ____. (red pulp function) erythrocytes, platelets
The ____ phagocytizes old, defective erythrocytes and platelets (red pulp function) and ____. spleen, bacteria
Some functions like ____ of lymph back to the bloodstream and ____ of lipids from small intestine, don’t change with age. transport, absorption
In adulthood, the ____ no longer matures and differentiates T-lymphocytes. New ones come from ____ of older ones. thymus, mitosis
Immunity: ____ with age. Elderly people are more prone to ____. Decreases, infection
In regards to immunity - with age, there are less cells and the response is much ____. slower
If tonsils are removed, other organs such as ____ ____ can mount an immune response. Also, lymphocytes circulation in the bloodstream and detect ____ in the ____. lymph nodes, antigens, throat
If your spleen were removed (splenectomy), what would be the reason for greater risk of bacterial infection? Because the spleen isn’t there to.... filter bacteria from blood
Unlike the thymus and lymph nodes, the spleen lacks division into a ____ and a ____. cortex, medulla
Created by: Falicon