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BIO201 - Final Review 4 - Q & A's from Online Lessons & Labs - P. Nervous System

What organ is involved in micturition (urination)? Bladder
What organ is involved in the Heringt-Breuer reflex? Lung or lungs
What organ is involved in defecation? Rectum
What organ is involved in the cartoid sinus? Cartoid Artery
Which division controls the ciliospinal reflex? Sympathetic
Which division controls the salivary reflex? Parasympathetic
Which division controls the pupilary light reflex? The parasympathetic division.
Name a few somatic reflexes? Abdominal reflex, Achiles jerk, Corneal reflex, Crossed extensor reflex, gag reflex, patellar & plantar reflex.
Name 2 simple stretch reflexes? Achilles jerk & patellar reflex.
Superficial cord reflexes are? Abdominal reflex & plantar reflex.
Autonimic reflexes include? Ciliospinal reflex & pupillary light reflex
5 essential components of a reflex arc: Receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, & effector.
The __ division has more specific control. Parasympathetic Division
"Fight or flight" system. Sympathetic Division
Which division is normally in control? Parasympathetic Division is normally in control.
Which division arises from spinal nerves T1 - L3? The Sympathetic Division rises from spinal nerves.
Which division has short preganglionic axon & long postganglionic axon? Sympathetic Division - short/long
Which division has long preganglionic axon; short postganglionic axon? Parasympathetic division - long/short
Which division secretes acetylcholine; cholinergic fibers? The parasympathetic division secretes ACh.
Which division secretes norepinephrine; adrenergic fibers? The sympathetic division secretes norepinepherine.
A pelvic splanchnic nerve contains: preganglionic parasympathetic fibers.
Name the plexus that serves the head, neck & shoulders. The cervical plexus
Name the nerves serving the leg & foot. Tibial & common fibular
Name two nerves serving anterior forearm muscles. Median & ulnar
Name 2 nerves serving the arm muscles. Musculocutaneous & radial
Name the plexus serving the abdominal wall. Lumbar Plexus
Name the major nerve serving the anterior thigh Femoral
Name the major nerve serving the medial side of the hand. Ulnar
What would happen if the dorsal root of a spinal nerve were damaged? Loss of sensory function.
What would happen if the ventral root of a spinal nerve were damaged? Loss of motor function
Plexuses serve the __ of the body Limbs or anterior trunk
The dorsal rami of the spinal nerves serve the __. Posterior trunk or posterior body trunk.
Will contraction of a muscle occur if the upper motor neurons serving it have been destroyed? Yes
Will contraction of a muscle occur if the lower motor neurons serving it have been destroyed? No
Damage to what would cause uncoordinated movement? Tectospinal tract, rubrospinal tract, & vestibulospinal tract
Damage to what would cause lack of voluntary movement? Lateral or anterior corticospinal tract
What would be damaged if there are trmors, or jerky movements? Tectospinal tract, rubrospinal tract or vestibulospinal tract.
What damage would cause diminished pain perception? Lateral spinothalamic tract
What damage would cause a diminished sense of touch? Fasciculus gracilis & cuneatus, or anterior spinothalamic tract.
Neuron type found in posterior horn Association
Neuron type found in anterior horn Efferent in anterior horn
Neuron type in dorsal root ganglion Afferent in dorsal root
Fiber type in ventral root Efferent in ventral root
Fiber type in dorsal root Afferent in dorsal root
Fiber type in spinal nerve? Both afferent and efferent
Most superior boundary of the spinal cord. Foramen magnum
Meningeal extension beyond the spinal cord terminus filium terminale
spinal cord terminus conus medullaris
collection of spinal nerves traveling in the vertebral canal below the terminus of the spinal cord. Cauda equina
What region of the cerebrum interprets the kind & intensity of stimuli that cause cutaneous sensations? Somatosensory association area
Where is referred pain felt when the elbow is immersed in ice water? Medial aspect of hand
Where would referred pain appear if appendix were in pain? RLQ of abdominal surface
Where is referred pain for kidneys? Lumbar pain
Where is gallbladder referred pain? Right inferior thorax
Which has more numerous receptors? Hot or cold? Cold
Which areas are least sensitive to touch? Back of calf & neck
Which 2 body areas are most sensitive to touch? Lips & fingertips
Which cutaneous receptors are most numerous? Pain receptors
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the __. Hypothalamus
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head in the __ nerve. Vagus
The majority of the sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the __. Thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinepherine.
In aging, the autonomic inefficiency is often due to __. Cloggin of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments.
The white rami __. Carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain.
In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system __. Has 2 efferent neurons.
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of __. Sympathetic stimulation
If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies? A complete loss of voluntary movement.
The circuit level of the somatosensory system involves CNS centers in all of the following except the __. Cerebral cortex (perceptual level)
Which nerve would cause the corner of the mouth to droop & an eye unable to close? Facial Nerve
The peripheral nervous system includes __. Sensory receptors
__ most always takes a nonspecific acending pathway. Pain
Innervates teh superior oblique muscle. Trochlear (IV)
Damage to this nerve would cause dizziness, nausea, and loss of balance. Vestibulococlear (VIII)
Damage to this nerve would cause difficulty in speech. Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)
White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations, with the exception of the __. Cerebral Cortex - Gray matter
Which of the following is/are involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)? Red nuclei
Which statement is not true? Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
Group __ fibers are not capable of saltatory conduction. C
If a motor neuron in the body were stimulated by an electrode placed about midpoint along the length of the axon __. The impulse would spread bidirectionally.
Which nerve would connect to a muscle? Multipolar - motor interneuron
Which neuron is a sensory neuron found in a reflex arc? Bipolar
Which neuron is common only in dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord and sensory ganglia of cranial nerves? Unipolar - dorsal root ganglia
Trauma to a nerve of this plexus may cause wrist drop. brachial plexus - wrist drop
Striking the funny bone may cause injury to a nerve of this plexus. brachial plexus
The phrenic nerve branches from this plexus. cervical plexus
The obturator and femoral nerves branch from this plexus. They form the lumbar plexus.
Improper administration of an injection to the buttocks may injure a nerve of this plexus. sacral plexus - can be injured.
Ventral spinal cord roots contain ____ fibers Motor
The perineurium defines the boundary of a ___. Fascicle
____ is the tingling sensation or numbness when blood has been cut off from an area, as when the foot "goes to sleep." Ischemia
Pain perception is involved in the ____ ascending pathways of the somatosensory system. Nonspecific
____ ____ are modified free-dendritic endings found int he stratum germinativum. Merkel Discs
Complex motor behaviors such as walking depends on ___ ___ patterns. Fixed Action
_____ _____ is a protective reflex that overrides the spinal pathways and prevents any other reflexes from using them at the same time. Flexor reflex
Helps to regulate blood pressure and digestion & has receptors in nasal cavity epithelium. Vagus nerve
Turns the eyeball laterally. abducens
T/F - External strabismus and ptosis could be caused by damage to the oculomotor nerve. true - Can result from damage
T/F - The obturator nerve branches from the sacral plexus. This is false. It branches from the lumbar plexus.
T/F - Spinal roots and rami are similar in that they both contain sensory and motor fibers. True - both do
T/F - The dorsal ramus consists only of motor fibers bringing information to the spinal cord. This is false. Each ramus is mixed.
T/F - The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers. True - Optic nerve
The __ nerve is a major nerve of the brachial plexus. musculocutaneous
In the somatosensory system there are no __-order neurons in the cerebellum. third
In __ inhibition, the stretch stimulus causes the antagonists to relax so that they cannot resist the shortening of the "stretched" muscle caused by the main reflex arc. reciprocal
Which reflex checks the integrity of the spinal cord and dorsal rami at the level of T8 to T12. Abdominal
Which reflex Produces a rapid withdrawal of the body part from a painful stimulus; ipsilateral. flexor
Which reflex Tests both upper and lower motor pathways. The sole of the foot is stimulated with a dull instrument extension. plantar
Which reflex Prevents muscle overstretching and maintains muscle tone. stretch
The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the __ division. sympathetic
T/F - Beta-adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart. This is false. There are two major classes of adrenergic receptors: alpha and beta, and the heart has both.
Alpha-adrenergic effects are usually __ and mediatory. stimulatory
T/F - In contrast to the parasympathetic division, the sympathetic division has numerous ganglionic neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord. This is false. The sympathetic division has ganglia within a few centimeters of the CNS: alongside vertebral column and anterior to vertebral column; not within the gray matter of the spinal cord itself.
T/F - The sympathetic chain is composed of collateral ganglia. This is false. The chain synapses with collateral ganglia.
T/F - The gray rami communicantes consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers. This is false. The gray rami are unmyelinated, while the white rami are myelinated (giving them their characteristic white color).
T/F - The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons. This is false. The chain ganglion does not contain soma from sensory neurons.
T/F - Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves. This is false. Splanchnic nerves are not mixed nerves.
The ___ receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rate. Beta-one
The __ division causes erection of the penis and clitoris. parasympathetic division - penis
The two cholinergic receptor types are nicotinic and muscarinic
Created by: Ladystorm