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BIO201 - Final Review 2 - Q & A's from Online Lessons & Labs - Muscle System

Fatigued muscle cells that recover rapidly are the products of: intense exercise of short duration
The main effect of the warm-up period of athletes, as the muscle contractions increase in strength, is to: enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems
Athletes sometimes complain of oxygen debt, a condition that results when insufficient oxygen is available to completely break down pyruvic acid. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to: lactic acid
Muscle tone is: a state of sustained partial contraction
The warm-up period required of athletes in order to bring their muscles to peak performance is called: treppe
With muscular dystrophy: muscle fibers degenerate and atrophy
Which of the following athletic endeavors best represents the use of red fibers? a long, relaxing swim
Which of the following is not a usual result of exercise? increase in the number of muscle cells
Muscle tissue has all of the following properties except: transmissibility
Rigor mortis occurs because: ATP is required to release the attached actin and myosin molecules
Smooth muscles that act like skeletal muscles but are controlled by autonomic nerves and hormones are: multiunit muscles
Of the following muscle types, which has only one nucleus, no sarcomeres, and no gap junctions? multiunit smooth muscle
Smooth muscle is significantly different from striated muscle in __. smooth muscle shortens and stretches to a greater extent than does striated muscle
Most muscles contain? A mixture of fiber types.
The site of calcium regulation in the smooth muscle cell is? Calmodulin.
T/F - The arrangement of a muscle's fascicles determines its range of motion and power. False
T/F - The anconeus muscle flexes the knee and stabilizes the patella. This is false. The anconeus muscle abducts the ulna during forearm pronation and is a synergist of triceps brachii in elbow extension.
T/F - Electromyography is the recording and interpretation of graphic records of the electrical activity of contracting muscles. True
T/F - The four muscle pairs forming the abdominal wall perform the functions of support and compression of the abdominal contents. This is false. The transversus abdominis functions mainly in compression of the abdominal contents.
T/F - The soleus is a synergist of the gastrocnemius used in plantar flexion. True
T/F - Plantar flexion at the ankle joint is accomplished by the tibialis anterior muscle. This is false. The tibialis posterior muscle works towards plantar flexion.
T/F - A pair of tweezers is a good example of a second-class lever. This is false. A pair of tweezers is an example of a third-class lever.
T/F - Muscles that help to maintain posture are often called synergists. This is false. Muscles that maintain posture are called fixators.
Muscles connecting to the hyoid bone are instrumental in speech. his is false. These bones are instrumental in swallowing.
T/F - The broadest muscle of the back is the latissimus dorsi. True
T/F - In order to propel food down to the esophagus, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles would be used. True
T/F - The insertion of the biceps brachii is on the radius. True
T/F - The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) is the largest, strongest tendon in the body. True
T/F - Severing of the patellar tendon would inactivate the hamstring group. This is false. This would inactivate the quadriceps group.
T/F - Movements of the thigh are accomplished by muscles anchored to the pelvic girdle. True
T/F - Muscle spasm of the back would often include the erector spinae. True
T/F - Both first- and second-class levers operate at a mechanical disadvantage. This is false. Second-class levers do not operate at a mechanical disadvantage.
T/F - A prime mover of the arm that acts in adduction would be the deltoid. This is false. The deltoid is the prime mover of arm abduction.
T/F - The chewing muscle covering the ramus of the mandible is the buccinator. This is false. This is the masseter muscle.
T/F Although all skeletal muscles have different shapes, the fascicle arrangement of each muscle is exactly the same. This is false. Fascicles can display a circular, convergent, parallel, or pennate pattern.
T/F - Muscle power does not depend on the direction of the fascicles. True
Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis Extends and abducts the wrist.
Extensor pollicis longus and brevis Extends the thumb.
Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexes the wrist.
Flexor carpi ulnaris Powerful wrist flexors that also stabilize the wrist during finger extension.
Flexor digitorum profundus Slow-acting finger flexor.
The _____ helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing. buccinator
The pectoralis major has a _____ arrangement of fascicles. convergent
_____ extends the great toe. extensor hallucis longus
_____ is the abnormal protrusion of the small intestine through a week point in the muscle of the abdominal wall. hernia
The _____ runs deep to the external oblique. internal oblique
_____ is the main chewing muscle. masseter
______ draws the corner of the mouth downward as in expressing horror. platysma
The quadriceps femoris is composed of three vastus muscles and the _____. rectus femoris
The ______ is known a the boxer muscle. serratus anterior
____ is a synergist of the latissimus dorsi; it extends, medially rotates, and adducts the humerus. teres major
______ fibers run at right angles to the axis of the muscle. ______ fibers run at right angles to the axis of the muscle.
________ is a powerful forearm extensor. triceps brachii
Which class lever for the Humerus Ulna Joint? 3rd Class
Which class lever for the Tibia Calcaneus Lever? 2nd Class
Which class lever for the Humerus metacarpal lever? 1st Class
With regard to muscle fiber arrangement in a pennate muscle __. The fascicles are short & attach to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle.
The extensor digitorum longus has which type of fascicle arrangement? Unipennate
Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the thigh? Iliopsoas & rectus femoris
Which of the following muscles does not act in plantar flexion? Popliteus
Most flexor muscles are located on the __ aspect of the body anterior
Most extensors are located __. Posteriorly
An exception to the generalized location of the extensor-flexor rule is the __. Knee
The extrinsic muscles of the hand originate on the __,__, & __. Humerus, radius, and ulna.
The bulk of the tissue of a muscle tends to lie __ to the part of the body it causes to move. Proximal
The triceps surae insert in common into the __ tendon. Calcaneal
The insertion tendon of the __ group contains a large sesamoid bone, the patella. Quadriceps femoris
Intramuscular injection sites. Deltoid, gluteus maximus, & gluteus medius.
Flexes the great toe & inverts the ankle Flexor hallucis longus
Lateral compartment muscles that plantar flex and evert the ankle Fibularis brevis & longus
Move the thigh laterally to take the "at ease" stance Gluteus medius & tensor fascae latae
Used to extend the hip when climbing stairs Gluteus maximus
Prime movers of ankle plantar flexion gastrocnemius & soleus
Major foot inverter tibialis posterior
Prime mover of ankle dorsiflexion tibialis anterior
Allow you to draw your legs to the midline of your body, as when standing at attention. Adductor group
Places the palm upward Biceps brachii & supinator
Flexes teh forearm & supinates the hand biceps brachii
Forearm flexors; no role in supination Brachialis & brachioradialis
Elbow extensor triceps brachii
Power wrist flexor and abductor flexor carpi radialis
flexes wrist a& middle phalanges flexor digitorum superficialis
Pronate the hand pronator quadratus & teres
Flexes the thumb Flexor pollicis longus
Extends and abducts the wrist Extensor carpi radialis longus
A major spine flexor rectus abdominis
Prime mover for pulling the arm posteriorly latissimus dorsi
Prime mover for shoulder flexion Pectoralis major
Assume major responsibility for forming the abdominal girdle External oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis
Pulls shoulder backward & downward latissimus dorsi
Important in shoulder adduction; antagonists of shoulder abductior latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major
Moves scapula forward & downward Serratus anterior
Small, inspiratory muscles between the ribs; elevate the ribs External intercostals
Extends the head Trapezius
Pull the scapulae medially rhomboids
Used in smiling Zygomaticus major & minor
Used to pout Depressor labii inferioris
Raises eyebrows Frontalis
Your kisser obicularis oris
Prime mover to raise the lower jawbone Masseter
Agonist Prime mover
Reverses and/or opposes the action of a prime mover antagonist
postural muscles, for the most part Fixator
Stabilizes a joint so that the prime mover may act at more distal joints. fixator
Performs the same movement as the agonist Synergist
Immobilizes teh origin of a prime mover Fixator
Created by: Ladystorm